IPv4 is an end-to-end network model that supports the multicast operation. Multicast operations or communications involve information transfer from one node in as single transmission to multiple receivers within the network. Moreover, it facilitates the broadcasting of multimedia information like videos and audio teleconferences. IPv4 utilizes MAC addresses and IP addresses to send data packets within and outside the Local Area Network respectively.
For security purposes, routers are used in the interconnection of multiple networks to map the IP addresses to related MAC addresses. IPv4 uses 32-bit addresses that are divided into octets, each octet separated by a period. This gives different address ranges that are used for different purposes. This protocol establishes the use of group access controls, router trusts and group center trusts.
However, since information is being sent to group users sharing the same address, it becomes challenging to implement encryption standards and authentication infrastructures. Although sharing a public key may remedy the situation, it is only successful if the number of receivers is limited (Bachert, 2002). As a result, while some receivers get error-free transmissions other may not even see the data that has been transmitted. Internet Protocol Security (IPsec) provides a homogeneous security mechanism framework within the IP suite.
IPsec offers a security protocols that operate independently from data origin authentication, cryptographic, replay protection and key exchange mechanisms used in protecting explicit applications. To be put into consideration, IPsec depends on the founding of Security Associations (SAs) between the individual hosts involved in sheltered communications. The SAs agree with clear-cut authentication algorithms, security and cryptographic features that the host uses to securely communicate with another host.