Guarantee of international security to the global community forms basis for sustainable development and holistic wellbeing of the human race. This is possibly due to the need for inclusive harmony between the social, economic, cultural, and environmental demands that derive the required operationalization platform for progress.
However, this has turned out to be a mirage, perhaps non existent to many as security issues take an exceptionally wide derivation from a global perspective. It is from this demand that this essay seeks to establish the extent to which various emergent issues like environment, population, food security, and women issues should be inculcated on the international security studies (Craig, 2008, pp. 380-383) .
2. Paper overview
Following the worsening of global status in relation to security issues, there is needed refocus on the need for inculcation of the new aspects in the security studies. Therefore, this paper explores the international security approaches and major issues that warrant reconsideration in relation to global stability and development. Besides, it evaluates the significance of such aspects refocus in the current security status and the future of security with and without these issues consideration.
3. Historical derivation and approaches to international security
Historically, the notion of international security took a narrow consideration that limited it only to a realist construct. Under the theorem of traditional security paradigm, the state was referred as the object of security where the world powers sought and entrusted global security through balance of power by different states.
It is worth noting that balance of power relied on anarchistic principles that deemed states to have ‘rational’ interest in the establishment of policies projected at harboring absolute power. Therefore, security was widely seen as protection from invasion as exemplified in proxy conflicts (Cynthia, 2008, 232-234). Indeed, it was from this notion coupled with emergent consumerism patterns and modern development that security studies revitalization is long overdue.
Currently, international security falls under the realms of international organizations and nations where measures that seek mutual survival and safety are enforced. Such measures take the form of diplomatic agreements such as conventions, treaties, and military actions to the member/s who violate the laws (Owen, 2004, pp. 78-81). Though this system has been operation for a long time with high levels of efficiency, analysts have demanded that referent for security take greater reflection of the individual’s consideration as opposed to unilateral focus on securing the boarders of individual states.
4. Current status and inherent issues in security
Though international security has undergone major changes since the end of the cold war, scholars are demanding refocus into the notion of the term in relation to international cohesion and local communities’ stability. Specific issues with current and/ or future negative implications require to be given a better focus that secures intra-generational equity.
Environment is possibly one of the major areas that require an intrinsic review and inclusion into the security studies globally. It is worth noting that all the aspects of global development are entirely dependent on environment which bores them. However, the misleading notion that the earth’s resources are “infinite” and has “infinite” resilience capacity has led to the following issues.
Since the first United Nations Convention on Human Environment in 1972, concerns for environment has taken a clearer stage in the global arena. However, it was the Rio Summit that fully acknowledged global warming to be an international threat. Global warming is the increase in the average temperatures since mid twentieth century and its projected continuation. According to Agenda 21 of the United Nations Conference on Environment and Development, and its latter derivative Kyoto Protocol, global warming is a major present and future threat to human existence on the planet (Tony, 2009, pp. 3).
The demand for this notion factoring on the security studies is linked with its resilient effects that are indicated by the International Panel on Climate Change to continue getting severe in the next 50-100 years.
Though many countries have held a low profile in embracing the concept of the causes of global warming as green house gases emissions, it has been proved beyond reasonable doubt and effects visible to all. Through this rise in global temperatures, excess thawing of polar waters has resulted to major submergence of coastal habitat. Regions like Kimberly in Australia, Venice in Italy, and New Orleans in New Jersey have recorded major submergence. Besides, other regions located in the coasts of Indonesia and East Africa have experienced massive floods. These events lead to massive loss of human life and properties and demand for relocation.
Besides, the rising temperatures have seen increase in desertification globally and resurgence of the tropical parasites and affiliated diseases. This forms another platform for increasing poverty among the pastoral communities especially for the marginalized drier regions. Sahara region of Africa is especially at great risk of spreading to the rest of the continent with the current rates of global warming (World Bank (COR), 2008, pp. 107-110).
Expanding the security studies to address the issue
a). Use of modern technology
The major sources of greenhouse gases as indicated in the discussion are industrial activities globally. The study should therefore seek to embrace systems that are modernistic in approach and that have greater levels of efficiency in their internal combustion systems. By encouraging such systems, it would reduce the overall fossil fuels consumption while cutting drastically the total emissions to the atmosphere. Scrubbers and catalytic systems should also be encouraged during the study to further reduce the amount of gases being released to the atmosphere as proposed by the Kyoto Protocol (Mark, 2009, pp. 1-2).
b). Forestry and agro-forestry
Arguably, the ability to effect natural geochemical cycles would increase the overall green house gases absorption. These systems should be encouraged in the studies and in practice as they have multiple benefits to the individuals, nation, and the planet by assimilating the excess carbon dioxide released from the industrial processes. However the studies should establish systems of international cooperation through carbon trading between the greenhouse gas emitters and the foresters as an important aspect in addressing the problem holistically. Such systems have been affected by EU member states and should be emulated.
c) Use of alternative fuel sources
With the future of the fossil fuels becoming slimmer and slimmer, the studies should seek alternative sources as a replacement but most importantly less polluting considerations. Bio-fuels, solar energy, and wind energy that are much more environmentally sustainable should be established as a guarantee of total reduction of emissions to only the levels that have no effects to the atmosphere and can be assimilated by the global natural systems.
B). POPULATION MIGRATION
The number of people living outside their countries of origin has doubled in the in about 35 years to 2005. About 2.9% of the total world population are migrants and mostly represent shift of the people from the poorer countries to the developed economies. In Western Europe, the migrant population rose from 18.7 million and 32.8 million only in three decades to the year 2000. This has been compounded by the existence of economic union under EU which advocates for free movement of labor in the member states (Maggie, 2005, pp. 65-69).
Global effects of excessive migration
a). To the environment
Most of the developed countries where people shift to have consumerism patterns that are highly encourage environmental degradation. Compared to the developing countries, the migrant populations assume these characteristics with speed increasing resources withdrawal from the natural system. Though the analysts have taken a low profile towards the problem, it is possibly due to the low numbers of the immigrants that have obscured the effects. However, the current trends are alarming and should be addressed well in advance before they get to the critical levels.
b). Masking the problems of the sending countries
Most of the immigrants’ countries of origin have massive problems related to poverty, illiteracy, high population, food insecurity and low lifespan among others. By establishing the ideology that outward shift harbors the main solution to their inherent problems is a gross miscalculation and therefore practically wrong. It is worth noting that in most of the cases, the shifting populations constitute the literate group in these countries a notion that fully compromises their overall ability to grow and develop economically, socially and politically (Adelman, 2001, pp. 15-21).
c). Urban problems
Arguably, immigrants usually shift in search for greener pastures which in most of the cases turn out to be in industries for the developed countries. As a result, there is strong increase in the number of people living in various towns from the immigrating numbers. Though this problem has not reached acute levels, it is projected that many of the towns will soon outgrow their holding capacities. This would be accompanied by major social problems of town development like crime and sanitation. It is estimated that a growth by more than 10 million in UK by the year 2074 would outdo of the current towns’ handling capacity and therefore demanding about 57 more towns of the size of Luton (OPT, 2009, pp. 1-2).