International relations deals with mutual understanding between countries; they can therefore be in a position to trade with each other and also to assist each other when one country is facing certain challenges. International relations therefore lays more emphasis on multi cultural and global understanding of a world that is interconnected and complex, by focusing closely on economic, political, cultural and legal forces. International relations are hence very important to the business community internationally, non governmental and private international organizations and governments (Lawson, 2003).
Rationality of negotiators Strategies for effective negotiations have always caused major concerns to all the major stakeholders especially to the practitioners and the scholars in the field of international relations. Negotiators can be passive or assertive, collaborative or argumentative, or can adopt other strategies in order to achieve their preferred outcome for their governments or other organizations they are presenting in certain negotiations.
When negotiating it is very important to view the issue under negotiation in an adversary point of view, another technique that is preferable while negotiating is focusing on the problem at hand instead of being personal, the negotiator should seek collaborative solutions and should as much as possible base all the discussions on the goal criteria (Lawson, 2003). Negotiators at times fall short of rationality when negotiating, in many instances this is caused by lack of sound negotiating techniques among the negotiators.
Such individuals with inadequate information concerning effective styles of negotiation are in most cases irrational and they are to a very great extent guided by their personal experiences assumptions and perceptions as to what may work. These might make the negotiators focus less on the problem, compromise sound solutions and also be personal when negotiating. When such takes place, questions of rationality arise, whether the negotiating individuals are self interested and whether the negotiating parties use the techniques that they perceive to be the best in negotiating (Lawson, 2003).
At other times negotiators fail to be rational when negotiating when they feel that by accepting the proposals of the other party it means that they have lost and thus they are likely to use all means possible in blocking certain proposals regardless of whether they are beneficial to the negotiating parties or not. Therefore for negotiations to be successful, it is very important for the negotiating teams to adopt a win win strategy instead of believing that the other party must loose for me to win which eventually becomes detrimental to both parties.
For rationality to prevail when negotiations are taking place it is very important to approach the subject on the basis of how the negotiating teams can both benefit from the discussions, they should always be ready to give and take so that consensus can be reached and rational decisions made (Lawson, 2003). Irrationality can arise when the negotiating parties are of unequal power, the stronger party may fail to be rational and decide to use its excess power in oppressing the other party.
In such a case the stronger party usually has its pre agreed proposals which it imposes on the weaker party. Such power might be in form of stronger military, economic power, technical power and other forms of power that are likely to make it more dominant than the other party (Lawson, 2003). Conclusion Negotiators should be very rational when holding their negotiations; this will make them be able to adopt the best strategies such as dealing with dilemmas that may arise in the cause of the discussions.
They will therefore, be able to effectively use such strategies as the prisoner’s dilemma in a manner that they will both benefit from the negotiations. Thus the negotiators can be in a position of answering the toughest question in the dilemma: is it possible for people to cooperate naturally, or do genes of individuals demand a selfish response to all situations in life (Parselle, 2007).