Performance budgeting involves processes or techniques meant to establish connections between the finances delivered to public sector groups and their results and turnouts by using conventional performance data in resource allocation decision-making. Conventional performance data in the definition relates to performance measures, appraises of the costs to specific target groups of outputs and results, and evaluations of the effectuality and efficiency of spends gained by using one of the numerous analytic tools.
The main purposes of performance budgeting are to improve allocation and productive efficiency in spends on public sectors (Robinson & Brumby, 2005). 2. HOW PERFORMANCE BUDGETS ARE USED? There is a vital association between the structure for performance budgeting and the system of utilizing performance data. In tabular forms, plan managers bring the inputs and outputs for the performance budget program. Also, they should perform analysis the data and the processes that provide those data so that they can obtain data for program enhancement, reduction, or readjustment.
In governmental accounting, data analysis is directly associated to organizational capability. It demands people with the essential procedure know-how, time, and knowledge to use analytical tools so that they can develop systematic plans for modification through the use of the inputs and outputs of service delivery. Program managers normally observe performance measures not just within the scope of the statistics but they accumulate and report for the annual budget procedure. There are numerous management methods that enhance the possible outcomes of data use.
Data analysis is basic requirement for all techniques (Rivenbark, 2004). 3. KEY FINDINGS OF PERFORMANCE BUDGET OF POLICE SERVICES, CITY OF SUNNYVALE Police services, City of Sunnyvale, prepared program performance budget to achieve several goals. They planned to establish a safe residential area and a feel of security among the citizens. Their plan was to protect the lives, property, and rights of each person. They controlled the crime rate 54% below the national weighted FBI crime rate. Their goal was to attain deterrence and prevention of criminal acts.
A seven year approximation of weighted clearance rate for the criminal activities like killing, rape, theft, assault, and felony 59% more than the national weighted clearance rate for such acts is attained. Their goal was to attain goals regarding arrest and criminal prosecution of offenders. They achieved the objectives of ensuring the implication of order and settlement of conflicts. They intended to deliver the quick response to incidents that need immediate action from police department.
Performance budgeting helped them in developing and maintaining secure and organized flow of road traffic in a pleasing, quick, responsive and nice way that is also delightful for citizens. A road accident ratio for one million mile travelling at the earlier three year approximation is attained. 4. IMPACTS OF BUDGET REDUCTION ON PERFORMANCE GOALS Budget reductions severely hurt institutions and institutions seek to use indirect and other sources of finances to achieve their institutional goals defined in performance budgeting.
Government usually seeks to attain reductions in aggregate governmental expenses; these can be intended for allocative efficiency or fiscal consolidation. Enhanced expenditure prioritization is normally potentially of the high significance. Budget reduction is the major action that government can take to reduce costs and increase revenues to deal a deficit. About 76% of general finance expenses are comprised of the cost of hiring employees. These employees provide various services enjoyed by citizens.
Let’s say if any government, after analyzing the size of budget deficit projects and potential sluggish economy recovery, decides to reduce police workforce and consider it necessary to balance the city’s budget. The loss of police staff will impact negatively in achieving performance budgeting goals in all areas. It will reduce traffic enforcement across the city limits. It will be impossible to achieve prompt response time to accidents due to mentally ill drivers. The ration of road accidents will increase and in all areas of police activities, government will find it difficult to achieve its goals in set time.
An overall satisfaction of citizens can never be achieved. 5. CONCLUSION Performance budgeting is a great technique to achieve performance and budget transparency in different governmental ministries that are working relevantly and having central policy measures like the Ministry of Finance and Ministry of Foreign Affairs.. Moreover, without any incentive measures for improved performance or result-oriented accountability, the implementation of performance budgeting cannot help in improving performance.
Managerial accountability should be part of outputs and not of results, as results are affected by certain external elements. Continuous monitoring of outcomes is essential task. Performance budgeting should not be regarded as a mechanistic, rational mechanism that usually substitute the political procedure of having resource preferences in complicated environment of various needs. Rather, it allows making informed political selections. By embodying budget transparency and public’s analysis of outputs in performance, performance budget can help in enhancing budgetary outcomes.
Though, performance budgeting is an expensive practice but it shows quick positive results, if managers develop culture of performance management and allow results-accountability to general public. ? 6. REFERENCES 1. Robinson, M. & Brumby, J. (2005, November). Does Performance Budgeting Work? International Monetary Fund. Retrieved from http://www. imf. org/external/pubs/ft/wp/2005/wp05210. pdf 2. Rivenbark, W. C. (2004). Defining Performance Budgeting for Local Government. Popular Government. Retrieved from http://www. sog. unc. edu/pubs/electronicversions/pg/pgwin04/article3. pdf