Intelligence quotient (IQ) is a term that describes a measurement related to age and is derived by “dividing the mental age by the actual age and multiplying the result by 100” (Cattell, 1987, p. 7; Carter, 2007). According to research, the IQ scores are correlated with the variables of academic performance and ethnic, social, and economic characteristics of the individuals (Giddens, 2006). Likewise, there are also authors who argue that heredity is an important factor in the outcome of IQ tests (Giddens, 2006).
Intelligence quotient rose from the attempts of psychologists in the 20th century to quantify the concept of human intelligence (Heilbron, 2003). Alfred Binet, a psychologist appointed by the French government to formulate a distinct program for children who are not coping well in school, formulated the first intelligence test that served as the model for modern IQ tests (Bernstein, Penner, Clarke-Stewart, & Roy, 2008).
The term “intelligence quotient” was born at a later time through the work of the German psychologist William Louis Stern and Lewis Madison Terman in 1912 (Heilbron, 2003). Stern and Terman were also responsible for the revision of the Binet-Simon intelligence test 4 years after the invention of IQ as a concept (Heilbron, 2003). Intelligence quotient serves as the basis for teachers and parents in guiding the academic performance of children.
Nonetheless, it is important to note that IQ tests have certain limitations and the results can be affected by particular conditions. For example, Wrenn (1953) noted that coaching can have a significant impact on the scores of test-takers. Likewise, the author also noted that teachers and parents should be active in identifying the reasons behind the scores of children, in relation to their academic performance.