The police institution has undergone major changes aimed at rebuilding its public. These changes date back to aggressive cops to the modern day police whose are guided by the rule of law (Ratcliffe, 2003, p 3). Introduced in the late 20th century, community policing focused on restoration of police legitimacy through community participation. It aimed at re-connecting the police institution to the public (Ratcliffe, 2003, p 4). Various researches indicate that it failed to provide measurable results.
Consequently other models including problem oriented policing, Compstat and most recently, intelligence based policing (ILP) have emerged. Problem oriented policing involves use of statistical trends in identification of areas of interest. Compstat on the other hand focuses on empowerment of middle level officers to rapidly respond to crime. Basically it involves crime mapping, viewing and discussion. The most recent, ILP is an initiative at making the police smarter. It is founded on the use of criminal intelligence by the police in fighting crime (Ratcliffe, 2003, p 6).
Emerging as a rare and unique initiative that attempts at understanding criminal environments and thus predict its occurrence and trends, the initiative is increasingly gaining popularity. Unlike the other models, ILP does not favor the popular reactive and investigate approaches in fighting crime but rather focuses on early identification hence prevention (Ratcliffe, 2003, p 6). It ensures that police actions are based on intelligence rather than intuition. ILP emerges as an alternative in organizational restructuring towards crime eradication.
It is a result of changing crime faces and the transnational crime emergence alongside globalization, electronic financial transactions and internet in addition to police demand gap and failures of the existing policing models (Ratcliffe, 2003, p 6). The major similarity of this model to the previous models is the cause. Each aims to reduce crime marginal through either prevention or reactionary techniques. However, the approaches the take differ enormously. While the earlier models focused on either reacting to crime or cause identification, this model focuses on understanding the crime and the criminal mind as the basis for criminal fight.