The terrorist attacks of September 2001 had several governments taken aback of their incapacity to detect and prevent crimes of such magnitude. The United State’s Department of Homeland Security and the Department of Defense, for example, have been working extra hard to detect and thwart such mishaps now and in the future. In order to realize this, most aspects of national security have been reviewed by various governments around the world (Wisler and Onwudiwe, 2009).
One of these aspects is intelligence improvement and use for both internal and international security. Of most importance is internal security, given the fact that crimes such as international terror are planned and carried out by deterrents that are already living among us. Because the police have the mandate to provide internal security, they require effective intelligence to enable them to collect and act on any information related to looming attacks and dangers. Apart from intelligence led policing, there are numerous other types of policing.
However, the main ones are: knowledge-based policing, problem based policing and community policing. For any crime type to be bunged, the intelligence used by police ought to be based on all possibly available information and data, collected and thoroughly evaluated. Intelligence has been defined in multiple ways. For the sake of this discussion, we will settle on a single definition: it is collecting data and information precisely touching on crime, analyzing and drawing conclusions on it.
Therefore, intelligence is not any kind of information but that which has been studied and quality conclusions made on it. Intelligence can then be used to inform any concerned decision maker of the several available choices. The security personnel of any department, either the police or the military, can then draw on the analyzed findings to carry out their duties of preventing and stopping crimes by strategizing and laying good plans on how to achieve their set objectives.
Intelligence led policing is a structured method of collecting, analyzing and evaluating data and information related to crime. The analyzed information is then used to guide the institutions which enforce law in determining their actions. It was first used in the United Kingdom in 1990 and later received a huge acceptance in the United States after the 2001 terrorist attacks. The Kent police in the UK used this kind of policing on car stealing, home breaks and certain types of crimes which were then considered high priority.
The world’s governments later decided to use this method alongside others to curb international crime especially terrorism and to react effectively to simpler crimes at the domestic front (Wisler and Onwudiwe, 2009). The problem based policing is broad in its coverage bearing its stand on the notion that other types of policing are not committed to solving the basic criminal acts. While it concentrates on crimes that need the attention of the police and that it handles other issues other than implementing crime prevention programs, is not able to cover all sorts of crimes.
On the other hand Public policing usually focus on a single type of crime for example street gangs only. It is normally used when certain crimes occur and their area of operation is the streets. It is also effective in the sense that the time, when the required information is obtained and when action is taken on it, is relatively short. Its mainstay is to deter and disable unlawful trends. Criminals are also profiled to help in analysis. Finally, its approach involves the use of tour of duty personnel, strategic divisions and detectives.
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