Islam means Peace and Submission (The peace that comes from submission, the attention to God that comes from peace.) Allah Akbar means “God is great.”
Sunni = 85% of Muslim population; Shia = 10%; Sufi less than 5% Islam is not only a religion of the Middle East: largest population of Muslims is in India. Largest Islamic country is Indonesia. Of same faith tradition as both Christians and Jews
Muslims & Jews are both monotheistic, differ only on mainly messianic theology Places of worship differ yet can coexist; Spain fostered all three Abrahamic faiths during pre-Ferdinand and Isabella era (pre-1492)
Part 2 of 9: Pre Muslim Mecca, Quraish tribe, Muhammad’s early years & first vision, Qur’an, 1st pillar shahadah, and start of 2nd pillar prayer: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=KtFkhC7DIIo
Muslims descended from Hagar and Ishmael, who fled to the desert Abraham, according to Muslim legend, built Ka’ba Quraysh tribe controlled Mecca as trading city. Later put icons and statues of various tribal Gods inside Ka’ba so Mecca would become even more important as a pilgrimage site. Muhammad was born several generations later in 570 AD into a wealthy family. His dad died, his grandfather sent him to live with trading caravans. As a young man he became a talented caravanier, married Khadijah Muhammad illiterate, so others recorded his recitations
Qur’an means “recitation,” a mix of poetry, stories, admonitions, advice and warnings.
Part 3 of 9: 2nd pillar (prayer) continued, Muhammad gains followers, conflict with Meccans, Hijra, to Ummayad dynasty; beginning of 3rd pillar: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=5h4bcCSsc9A&NR=1
Muhammad gave sermons against polytheism to pilgrims arriving at the Ka’ba in Mecca; was persecuted by Quraish Muhammad had no strong political ally, few followers initially. Journeyed to Yathrib (later named Medina, “City of the Prophet”) to arbitrate dispute between city states. Became year 0 in Islamic calendar, 622 CE. Set up first Islamic community (Ummah)
Meccans were enraged, attacked Medina to destroy Muslims.
Battle of Badr, outnumbered by Meccans, yet Medinans won
630 AD Muslims returned to Mecca
Cleansed Abraham’s sacred temple (Ka’ba) of idols of pilgrims, kept the Ka’ba (lit. “cube”) as the central expression of monotheism Offered Meccans freedom for peace, many converted
Arab tribes came to pay tribute to Muhammad and convert
Umayyads 1st dynasty 750 Within a century of Muhammad’s death Muslims controlled more land than the Roman Empire—Turkey to parts of China. Jews and Christians were exempt from conversion to Islam
3rd pillar: Charity is heavily emphasized in the Qur’an, even more than the subordinate status of women
Part 4 of 9: 3rd pillar, charity, continued; 4th pillar, Ramadan, Abbasid dynasty; Crusades; Mongols: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ZKsm3O23Itg&NR=1
3rd Pillar: Charity: From everything you own you give 2.5%
All money collected must be given to those in need One must follow the fast during the month of Ramadan as the 4th pillar Fast lasts from sunrise till sunset Exceptions are made for the sick, weak, children, and the mothers who are expecting It’s a time to intensify your efforts to build your relationship with God The festival of the great Eid (Lit. festival) of the breaking of the fast Shia split from the Sunni after the death of Hussein (680 AD) There was a discrepancy of how leaders should be put in place Shia believed that leaders should be direct descendants of Muhammad Sunni believed leadersshould be elected democratically
8th century golden age in Iraq, Abbasid dynasty arose in Bagdad Abbasids valued learning, Greek philosophy and natural science. Algebra invented, decimals, exponents.
Medicine developed, orthopedics, mental illness treatment, surgery. Crusades: Jerusalem is 3rd most sacred city for Muslims
1099: Christians slaughter 30k Muslims
1258 Genghis Khan’s grandson & his Mongols plundered Bagdad
Part 5 of 9: Mongol era: 5th Pillar, Hajj; in Spain, interfaith cooperation: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=KXWJDY8AsFo&feature=related
The Mongol Khan becomes a Muslim,
Lesser pilgrimage can be taken to Mecca at any time of the year (min 0:30) Hajj, the greater pilgrimage, occurs only once a year a. Ihram1 = 2 white cloths in which you will be buried are worn during Hajj, significance is equality, Ihram2 is also = peaceful demeanor to accept all as brothers & sisters.
b. Ablution (ritual washing) leads to first stage: circumambulation 7 times God is the axis of one’s life c. 2nd step is to march between 2 hills representing Hagar’s search for water for Ismael; represents one’s struggle in life d. Next day they travel to the plain of Arafat. Pilgrims walk in quiet prayer confessing sins at Mount of Arafat. e. Next, to Mina to throw stones at 3 pillars representing Satan, sins are forgiven f. Last event prayer service at Ka’ba
Muslim scholars preserved writings from hordes
711 CE: Muslims arrive at Gibraltar
a. Called Moors, dwelled in Andalusia, cities of Cordoba & Seville b. Horticulture, math, navigation developed
c. Muslim, Jewish & Christian scholars worked together became a source for the Renaissance
Part 6 of 9: Spain, Ottoman Empire; place of women; Colonialism: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=6olUPtXRC6U&NR=1
Reconquista, Christian re-conquest of Spain expelling Moors and forcing conversion or expulsion of Jews 1492 the Moors were kicked out of Spain 1453 Greek Constantinople fell to Muslim troops; name changed to Istanbul = “Islam in Abundance” Sultan was the ruler of Islamic Ottoman society. Sultan means ruler Sultan’s Harem (Haram – forbidden, taboo)– group of concubines, in Western eyes they are dens of iniquity, but in Islamic practice they were centers of protection for women and sources for caucusing about political power Islamic polygamy: all wives need to be treated equally
Women’s rights clearly defined in Qur’an
Qur’an tried to do away with negativism toward women.
Gave women basic rights,
To own property,
vote (1300 years before western societies permitted it),
The hijab – the cloth that Islamic women wear on their heads Symbol of humility before God became a symbol of oppression in eyes of West Burka refers to a total body covering
In the 1800s the Europeans start taking advantage of the Islamic world, esp with Industrial Revolution Ottomans weakened, starting with Napoleon’s invasion of Egypt.
Part 7 of 9: Suez Canal; France colonizes Algeria; WWI; colonialism; Wahabism, Jihad: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=IH2lGUr7eJ4&NR=1
Colonial sense of superiority disparaged Muslims
France took over northern Africa and the northern part of the Middle East, discouraging Arabic language and Islamic faith. England expanded into Egypt after creating the Suez Canal, also taking the Sinai Peninsula, Palestine, and Iraq. Ottomans sided with Germany in WWI, so England & France took Muslim lands when Germany lost (min 2:40) Muslim Brotherhood arose in Egypt in 1928
Some Muslim states encouraged western style central authoritarian dictatorships; Muslim Brotherhood resisted these. Following WW2 Muslims throughout European colonies rose up, demanding release from the European counties. Mohammad ibn Abdul Wahab – became a leader in the Islamic world, preaching an ascetic, puritanical form of Islam Created Wahabism, founded Saudi State, merging desert warrior spirit with puritanical reform. Very fundamental and radical form of Islam
Was supported by Saud family, who would become rulers of Saudi Arabia Oil gave Saudis great wealth allowing them to expand Wahabist beliefs. Giving the money to organizations has caused an even more radical group of beliefs to arise Jihad = “struggle.” The greater jihad is the struggle of one’s will against one’s passions and weaknesses, an inner struggle. The lesser jihad is a defensive war, using just war criteria. Some groups called for a radical Jihad –war against western nations The end justifying the means leads to terrorism.
Osama Bin-Laden in particular
Part 8 of 9: Malcolm X; Israel; Iran hostage crisis, Iraq: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=cKHuc0ehFPc
Malcolm X: “We (blacks) did not land on Plymouth Rock; the rock was landed on us” Walhid Farad formed the Nation of Islam
Elijah Poole joined him; changed name to Elijah Muhammad & took charge in 1934 Malcolm Little heard about Nation of Islam in Prison, changed name to Malcolm X Malcolm X: “What was your name before you lost it?”
Malcolm X came back from hajj inspired to join Nation of Islam to traditional Islam; Gunned down By 1975, Elijah’s son brought about Malcolm X’s dream: changed name to World Community of Islam Louis Farrakhan continued in old ways of separation
Israel made a state in 1948. In 6 Day War in 1967 tensions increased with Muslims 1978 Iran’s Shah fell to Shiite Ayatollah Khomeini; US cast as
“Great Satan” Students took US embassy workers in Tehran as hostages for 444 days Sadat in Egypt assassinated; he had signed a peace treaty with Israel. Saddam Hussein invaded Kuwait in 1990; coalition lead by US stopped him, imposed no-fly Zone
Part 9 of 9: Suicide bombing; Islamic hell & heaven; wrap up: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=egTCPablawQ&NR=1
9/11 made people aware not only of radical fringe of Islam, but also of the peaceful Muslim neighbors. Even in heaven one cannot see God
Pleas for peace
Few stable & fair Muslim governments have replaced colonial governments
Part 1 of 9: Intro and basic facts: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=hAjsu1ATrts Part 2 of 9: Pre Muslim Mecca, Quraish tribe, Muhammad’s early years & first vision, Qur’an, 1st pillar shahadah, and start of 2nd pillar prayer: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=KtFkhC7DIIo Part 3 of 9: 2nd pillar (prayer) continued, Muhammad gains followers, conflict with Meccans, Hijra, to Ummayad dynasty; beginning of 3rd pillar: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=5h4bcCSsc9A&NR=1 Part 4 of 9: 3rdpillar, charity, continued; 4th pillar, Ramadan, Abbasid dynasty; Crusades;
Mongols: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ZKsm3O23Itg&NR=1 Part 5 of 9: Mongol era: 5thPillar, Hajj; in Spain, interfaith cooperation: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=KXWJDY8AsFo&feature=related Part 6 of 9: Spain, Ottoman Empire; place of women; Colonialism: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=6olUPtXRC6U&NR=1 Part 7 of 9: Suez Canal;
France colonizes Algeria; WWI; colonialism; Wahabism, Jihad: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=IH2lGUr7eJ4&NR=1 Part 8 of 9: Malcolm X; Israel; Iran hostage crisis, Iraq: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=cKHuc0ehFPc Part 9 of 9: Suicide bombing; Islamic hell & heaven; wrap up: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=egTCPablawQ&NR=1