Information theory is a branch of applied mathematics and electrical engineering involving the quantification of information. Information theory was developed by Claude E. Shannon to find fundamental limits on signal processing operations such as compressing data and on reliably storing and communicating data.
Since its inception it has broadened to find applications in many other areas, including statistical inference, natural language processing, cryptography generally, networks other than communication networks — as in neurobiology, the evolution and function of molecular codes, model selection in ecology, thermal physics, quantum computing, plagiarism detection and other forms of data analysis. A key measure of information is known as entropy, which is usually expressed by the average number of bits needed to store or communicate one symbol in a message.
Entropy quantifies the uncertainty involved in predicting the value of a random variable. For example, specifying the outcome of a fair coin flip (two equally likely outcomes) provides less information (lower entropy) than specifying the outcome from a roll of a die (six equally likely outcomes). Hearst Tower (New York City) The six-story base of the headquarters building was commissioned by the founder, William Randolph Hearst and awarded to the architect Joseph Urban. The building was completed in 1928 at a cost of $2 million and contained 40,000 square feet (3,700 m2).
The original cast stone facade has been preserved in the new design as a designated Landmark site. Originally built as the base for a proposed skyscraper, the construction of the tower was postponed due to the Great Depression. The new tower addition was completed nearly seventy years later, and 10,000 Hearst employees moved in on 26 June 2006. The tower – designed by the architect Norman Foster, structurally engineered by WSP Cantor Seinuk, and constructed by Turner construction – is 46 stories tall, standing 182 meters (597 ft) with 80,000 square metres (860,000 sq ft) of office space.
The uncommon triangular framing pattern (also known as a diagrid) required 9,500 metric tons (10,480 tons) of structural steel – reportedly about 20% less than a conventional steel frame. Hearst Tower was the first skyscraper to break ground in New York City after September 11, 2001. The building received the 2006 Emporis Skyscraper Award. Citing it as the best skyscraper in the world completed that year. treehugger. com Processes In philosophy and systems theory, basic processes, or logical homologies as they were termed by Ludwig von Bertalanffy, are unifying principles which operate in many different systemic contexts.
For example, feedback is a principle that figures prominently in the science of cybernetics. Natural and industrial processes utilize basic processes such as feedback. Turning torso HSB Turning Torso is the tallest skyscraper in Sweden and the Nordic countries, situated in Malmo, Sweden, located on the Swedish side of the Oresund strait. Upon completion, it was the tallest building in Scandinavia, the tallest residential building in the EU and the second tallest residential building in Europe, after the 264? etre (866 ft) Triumph Palace in Moscow.
A similar, taller skyscraper featuring a 90° twist is the Infinity Tower, currently under construction in Dubai, United Arab Emirates. Prior to the construction of Turning Torso, the 86? metre (282 ft) Kronprinsen had been the city’s tallest building. It was designed by the Spanish architect Santiago Calatrava and officially opened on 27 August 2005. The tower reaches a height of 190 metres (623 feet) with 54 stories. The vision of HSB Turning Torso is based on a sculpture called Twisting Torso.
The sculpture is a white marble piece based on the form of a twisting human being, created by Santiago Calatrava, a trained sculptor, architect and engineer. In 1999, HSB Malmo’s former Managing Director, Johnny Orback, saw the sculpture in a brochure which presented Calatrava in connection with his contribution to the architectural competition for the Oresund Bridge. It was on this occasion that Johnny Orback got the idea to build HSB Turning Torso. Shortly thereafter he traveled to Zurich to meet with Calatrava and ask him to design a residential building based on the idea of a structure of twisting cubes.
The turning torso officially started to be built on Feb. 14, 2001. en. wikipedia. org Systems theory is the interdisciplinary study of systems in general, with the goal of elucidating principles that can be applied to all types of systems at all nesting levels in all fields of research. The term does not yet have a well-established, precise meaning, but systems theory can reasonably be considered a specialization of systems thinking, a generalization of systems science, a systems approach.
The term originates from Bertalanfy General System Theory (GST) and is used in later efforts in other fields, such as the action theory of Talcott Parsons and the system-theory of Niklas Luhmann. Arkit Eco studio Australian architecture studio Arkit will construct a full scale eco studio prefabricated house as part of Melbourne’s annual state of design festival. the home measures 50m square and will host different events during the festival. To begin, two people will be living in the eco studio full time, working from it in the day and sleeping there a night.
Inside, the home has a bedroom, bathroom, kitchen, living space and an adaptable services hub. On top a green roof provides insulation and greenery. Arkit constructs a variety of sustainable prefabricated homes using their modular system. All their structures feature multi compartmental wall panels that provide insulation and rigidity. Sustainably harvested western red cedar and hoop pine are used inside and out, while water-saving technologies help further reduce the home’s environmental impact. It took 6 years of internal r&d prototyping and 1 year of environmental analysis by ghd to create the eco studio.