The introduction of information system has heave effect on arising of ethical, social and political issues. These issues should be dealt with at individual, social and political levels. The computer professional and users have the responsibility of maintaining relationship with each other given that critical decision made poses significant consequences to the involved parties.
Ethical issues are those principles of what is right and wrong that can be used by individuals acting morally as they make choices that guide their view towards new information technology. They have to behave ethically by not stealing, being honest, keeping promises and doing ones job right for computer users. Consequently, computer professionals are to follow good professional standards and practices, educate non computer professionals on how the systems affect people (Alter, 1999). They are also to ensure the latest knowledge and technology is attained through high level of professional competence. Thus the five ethical, social and political issues in information system that call for moral steps to be taken in making decisions are;
The information rights and obligations
Individuals and organizations should have rights and obligation on information so that they are able to protect their information in the system. The ethical issue here are on what condition should privacy be raided or what justifiable self-effacing inspection. Socially, people have to be ascertained privacy when using the information system. But will the expectation of the society be extended to criminal conspirators. Politically, are securities teams monitor or maintain individuals’ data from sites?
Property rights and obligations
There should be a way of protecting the traditional intellectual property rights in a digital society. This will facilitate tracing and accounting for information ownership by eliminating difficulties associated with property rights. In respect to social issues, the society should be in a position of sharing information so as to eliminate law breakers and politically, the government should protect investment of creators by setting new protection measures needed.
Accountability and control
The issue of who is to be held accountable or liable for the harm done to individuals or for the collective information and property rights. The ethical issue is on who is responsible morally for the consequences of the use of hardware or software. Socially, the issue brought out is on what the expectation of the society should be in allowing service provision from information system or can people be in a position of trusting the quality of the software, data (Gupta, 2000). In addition, the political issues of on what extent should the government intervene so that it may protect service providers and users.
The standards of data and quality of system should be defined that society should demand in order to protect individuals’ rights and the safety in the society. Ethically, the point at which services are to be released for consumption has to be defined. On social issues, whether people are to be convinced that the information systems are infallible and politically whether laws of accountability and responsibility should be set (Alter, 2006). The government has to step in and develop standards on the quality of data, software and hardware.
Quality of life
Certain values have to be preserved in an information and knowledge-based society against violation. The information should be in a position of supporting the cultural values and practices. Information system has led to reengineering of work, health risks like computer vision syndrome and radiation from display screens. In addition, it weakens traditional boundaries; it is vulnerable to system failures, slow responses to change due to efficient market place and problems associated with centralized policy decisions (Curtis & Cobham, 2008). Even though information system poses several issues to business, it must be incorporated in business operations for it is vital in coordination and communication within the business. Additionally, the benefits of information system are much more than the few shortcomings it carries.
2. An information system refers to the combination of information technology and people’s activities while using the technology in order to support operations, management and ease decision making. In essence, it’s the interaction between people, processes, data and technology (Beynon-Davies, 2009). It helps in controlling the performance of business processes. An information system works in a way that human and machines perform tasks to produce products and services for customers. Information system is made up of several components of management, organization and technology. These are; the people, hardware, software, data, network resources, types of information products and the way the components perform i.e. input, processing, output and storage through controlled activities.
People resources are made up of end users and information system specialists while hardware consists of machines and media. The soft ware resources comprises of programs and procedures in storage of information and processing while data consists of data and knowledge sources (Mader, 1979). Network resources are made up of communications media and network which facilitate technology in innovation and communication.
3. In an organization, information system is vital given that it helps in decision making by employees and managers. Additionally, it wires an organization strategy for competitive advantage through innovation using information system and facilitating business processes and operations. In a business, information system provides managers with important information about sales, inventories and all other vital data that will help in managing an organization (Edwards, 2001). It facilitates effective communication between the different levels of management through collection, processing, storing and dissemination of data in the organization.
I believe that information system is very important in the organization for it enhances communication within the organization. By incorporating modern information technology in management of the business, managers will be able to come up with decision with much ease. Furthermore, it provides essential data for analysis of performance of various levels in the business thus enabling motivation, training, recruitment and promotion. Lastly, it provides data and analysis which are useful in making good decision of how, when and where to employ human resources in order to achieve the goal of the organization.
4. I agree that there is a sustainable competitive advantage in business. Sustainable competitive advantage can only be attained through the use of information system where it facilitates innovation and decision making that will enable a business to remain competitive in the market (O’Brien, 2008). The organization will therefore make use of information technology to reengineer internal processes of the business thus cutting on cost and ensuring quality products making them to remain competitive in the market. In short, a sustainable competitive advantage is possible with implementation of effective information system with proper and focused management.
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