1. What is the difference between a threat agent and a threat? A threat agent is the facilitator of an attack however; a threat is a constant danger to an asset. 2. What is the difference between vulnerability and exposure? The differences are: vulnerability is a fault within the system, such as software package flaws, unlocked doors or an unprotected system port. It leaves things open to an attack or damage. Exposure is a single instance when a system is open to damage. Vulnerabilities can in turn be the cause of exposure. 3. How is infrastructure protection (assuring the security of utility services) related to information security?
Information security is the protection of information and it is critical elements, including the systems and hardware that used, store, and transmit that information, Thus, assuring the security of utility services are critical elements in information system. 4. What type of security was dominant in the early years of computing? The type of security was dominant in the early years of computing security was entirely physical security. And MULTICS was first noteworthy operating system to integrate security in to its core system. 5. What are the three components of the C.I.A. triangle? What are they used for? The three components of the C.I.A triangle are:
Confidentiality: Information’s should only be accessible to its intended recipients. Integrity: Information arrive the same as it was sent. Availability: Information should be available to those authorized to use it. 6. If the C.I.A. triangle is incomplete, why is it so commonly used in security? The CIA triangle is still used because it addresses the major concerns with the vulnerability of information systems. It contains three major characteristic confidentiality, integrity and availability which are important even today. 7. Describe the critical characteristics of information. How are they used in the study of computer security?
The critical characteristics of information are:
Confidentiality-preventing disclosure to unauthorized individuals
Accuracy-free form errors; Utility-has a value for some purpose; Authenticity-genuine and Possession-ownership. 8. Identify the six components of an information system. Which are most directly affected by the study of computer security? Which are most commonly associated with its study?
The six components are: Software, Hardware, Data, People, Procedures, and network. If there is a flaw or oversight in any of category it could lead to exposure and or vulnerabilities. The components most associated with the study of information security are: hardware and software when it views as science also people when it view as social science. 9. What system is the father of almost all modern multiuser systems?
Mainframe computer systems
10. Which paper is the foundation of all subsequent studies of computer security?
The foundation of all subsequent studies of computer security is the Rand Report R-609. 11. Why is the top-down approach to information security superior to the bottom-up approach?
Top down has strong upper management support, dedicated funding, clear planning and the opportunity to influence organizations culture, whereas Bottom up lacks a number of critical features such as participant support and organizational staying power. 12. Why is a methodology important in the implementation of information security? How does a methodology improve the process?
A formal methodology ensures a rigorous process and avoids missing steps. 13. Which members of an organization are involved in the security system development life cycle? Who leads the process?
14. How can the practice of information security be described as both an art and a science? How does security as a social science influence its practice?
Information security can be described in Art because there are no hard and fast rules especially with users and policy. Also, it can be describe in Science because the software is developed by computer scientists and engineers. Faults are a precise interaction of hardware and software that can be fixed given enough time. 15. Who is ultimately responsible for the security of information in the organization?
The Chief Information Security Officer (CISO)
16. What is the relationship between the MULTICS project and the early development of computer security? It was the first and operating system created with security as its primary goal. Shortly after the restructuring of MULTICS, several key engineers started working on UNIX which did not require the same level of security. 17. How has computer security evolved into modern information security?
In the early days before ARPANET machines were only physically secured. After ARPANET it was realized that this was just one component. 18. What was important about Rand Report R-609? RR609 was the first widely recognized published document to identify the role of management and policy issues in computer security. 19. Who decides how and when data in an organization will be used or controlled? Who is responsible for seeing that these wishes are carried out? Control and use of data in the Data owners are responsible for how and when data will be used, Data users are working with the data in their daily jobs. 20. Who should lead a security team? Should the approach to security be more managerial or technical?
A project manager with information security technical skills lead the team. The approach to security should be managerial, top down.