Authorities parenting, psychosocial maturity and academic success among adolescents, study of Steinberg et al. (1989) describes that when a parents treat their child warmly, democratically, and firmly, they will develop positive attitudes, they will achieve more and do better in school. Multidimensional conceptualization of parent involvement in children’s schooling according to Grolmck’s (1994), it describes that parents must support their child specially to their experiences. Parental Involvement and academic achievement of peer accepted and peer rejected children, a study by Chowdhary and Jayasmita (1997), describes that parental involvement may have influence to the academic performance of a child as a accepted or rejected. Comparative study of parent-child relationships of high and low achievers, study by Kang et al. (1997); the Tiwari (1997) was used to develop this study, it used eight dimensions at parent and child relations such as acceptance, rejection, dominance-submission, encouragement-discouragement, love-hate, authoritarian-democratic, reward-punishment, trust-disburst, tolerance-hostility. In this study it reveals that children who had warm relationships with their parents achieved higher in classroom. Parent-child relationship and academic motivation, study of Suman et al. (2003), it revealed that the achievement motivation was higher when adolescents perceived their parents as loving and demanding. Sibling rivalry and relation to achievement motivation, study of Vasuki et. al (2004), data were from Neerakatwal’s (1988) and Deo Mohan’s Achievement Motivation Scale (1985), it showed that rivalry towards siblings, tended to have low levels of achievement motivation. Effect of Peer Academic Reputation on Achievement
Gest et. al (2005) argued that peer academic reputation (PAR) may influence children’s academic motivation and achievement even if it is not veridical. This argument is consistent with research on the effect of teacher expectations on achievement, which demonstrates that teacher perception of children’s academic ability, whether accurate or not, affect student’s grades and scores on standardized achievement tests (for reviews see Brophy, 1983, Jussim Eccles, and Mardon 1996, and Jussim and Harber,
2005) Developmental Issues
Researchers speculate that growth in social cognitive skills, including the capacity and motivation to use social comparison information to shape self-evaluations, account for the trend toward more negative and more differentiated self-perception in grades K-3 (Kuklinsks and Weinstein 2001: Markus and Wurf, 1987). Also make children the transition from kindergarten to the more formal academic setting of grades 1-3, more social comparison cues, may be available, and feedback on one’s academic performance may be based more on comparison to others versus improvement over one’s prior performance (Eccles et. al, 1993: Ruble and Frey, 1987: Ruble, Grosovsky, Frey, and Cohen, 1992) Influence of siblings on adjustment of adolescents
Conger et al. (1997) carried a study on parents, siblings, psychological control and adolescents. Data were obtained by using Rosenberg measure of self esteem (Rosenberg, 1965) Pearten measure of control and mastery developed by (Pearlin, 1981), SCR-90-R (Symptom checklist revised; Derogatis, 1983) was administered. Results of the study indicated that psychological control both by parents and by siblings contributes to increase adolescents adjustment problems and to diminished self-confidence. Vasuki et al. (2004) carried a study on “sibling rivalry and its relation to frustration, mental health and self conflict of adolescents” on a sample of 60 girls and 60 boys from three city schools of in the age group of 15-18 years. Data were obtained using Neerakatual’s (1998) sibling relationship questionnaire, Chauhan and Govind Tiwari’s (1969) Frustration test, Smt Rama
Tiwari’s (1986) self conflict questionnaire, Jagdish and Srivastava’s Mental health questionnaire. Results of the study revealed that both males and females of dyads and multiples showed rivalry towards their siblings in a homogeneous way. Greater extent of sibling rivalry also lead the adolescents to become more frustrated. Oliva et al. (2005) carriedout a study on “sibling relationship during adolescence” on a sample of 513 adolescents aged between 13 and 19 years. Data were obtained by using an instrument created by Steinberg et al. (1991) to assess the parenting style,
questionnaire on sibling relationships (QSR; Arranz et al., 1994), inventory of peer attachment (IPA) developed by Armsdeu and Greenberg (1987) and Rosenberg self-esteem scale (RSES; Rosenberg, 1965). Results of this study indicated that having siblings was related to adolescent’s social and personal adjustment, although only among girls and only in cases of good sibling relationships. In cases of poor sibling adjustment, it was the negative effects of every day situations of rivalry and conflict outweighed the benefits of any support that was provided.