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Infection control Essay

Bacteria are one celled micro-organisms that get their nutrients fro their environment to live eg: The human body. Bacteria causes infections and can reproduce either inside or outside the body.

Viruses are pieces of nucleic acid (DNA or RNA) wrapped in a thin coat of protein. Viruses need to be inside living cells to grow and reproduce. They do not survive long unless they are inside a living thing eg: person, plant or animal. This is called a host.

Fungi are multi celled plant like organisms. They can not make their own food, instead getting their nutrition from plants, people and animals.

Parasites may be protozoa, yeasts or multi cellular organisms like fungi or worms, that live inside or on their host to obtain nourishment without providing any benefit to their host.

Bacterial infections – sore throats (tonsillitis, strep throat), ear infections, pneumonia Viral infections – Chickenpox, Measles, Flu, HIV
Fungal infections – Athletes foot, Thrush
Parasitical infections – Scabies, Malaria, Legionnaires Disease, Dysentery, Ring Worm

Infection begins when an organism successfully ‘colonises’ by entering the body, growing and multiplying.

Localised infection is an infection that is in a specific part or region of
the body, while Systemic infection in one that affects the whole body, usually travelling by blood or lymph.

Inadequate hand washing, not wearing PPE, not following proper food preparation guidelines, lack of risk assessments, and staff not following procedures and incorrect disposal of waste are all poor practises that may lead to the spread of infection.


Most micro-organisms require food, warmth, moisture, oxygen and time in orger to grow and multiply.

An infective agent my enter the body by inhalation, ingestion or sexual transmition. The infective agent may enter on the hand or other parts of the body where there are cuts or sores or broken skin.

Common sources of infection can include direct skin to skin contact, body fluids, human waste and blood. Droplets can be produced by coughing or sneezing and be carried through the air or dust. Infections can also be carried in water or with via contact with animals.

Transmition of infective agents can be direct, for example person to person, or indirect eg: by water, food, animals or in the air.

Key factors that make infection more likely are if someone has low immunity, s in young babies, children or the elderly, People who already have low immunity because of other health problems, or if you have open cuts or wounds and come in to contact with an infected person.

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