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Infection control Essay

Control of infection is very important specially on a care homes because I as a healthcare service provider is working on vulnerable adults or old people, it is important because older people are more prone to infection due to decrease in their immune system, which means their immune system is weakly functioning and because of that they are prone to different types of illnesses and diseases.

I as a key people is responsible for their health and protect them from any harm, we could prevent the spread of infection by doing the proper infection control guidelines such as wearing our Personal Protective Equipment ( PPE) and dispose it in a proper yellow bag, keeping all the toiletries away from the service users. Because some of the service users have dementia, They don’t know what they are doing, service users might tend to eat nor drink the toiletries within reach like bar of soap , shower gel and shampoo.

Cleaning agents such as bleach, dish washing soaps, hand sanitizers and handwash in a proper COSHH cupboard located next to the toilet along the hallway of the nursing hiome. to all employees are responsible for taking action to prevent the spread of infection, in accordance with legislation and local and organisational policies and procedures. They also have a personal and moral responsibility, as members of a caring society and profession. There are many roles where infection control is important, these include:

• Employees who work in communal living environments

• Employees who work with hazardous substances
• Employees whose work activities may expose them to infection • Employees working with individuals who may be vulnerable to infection 1.2 Explain employers’ roles and responsibilities in relation to the prevention and control of infection Answer:

Employers’ are responsible in relation to prevention and control of infection in Legal responsibilities like checking of criminal record or CRV, Organisational responsibilities , Personal/moral responsibilities, Assessing risks , Putting procedures in place, Ensuring procedures are followed , Ensuring employees are appropriately trained in relation to infection control , Making sure employees are aware of the health and safety aspects of their work. Posting information on notice boards, Keeping an information file such as Control of Substances Hazardous to Health (COSHH) , Providing supervision, Keeping records , Ensuring that the relevant standards, policies and guidelines are available within the workplace.

This should have to take an extra precautions special when handling substances. A risk assessment also takes part in infection control. Lets remember that we are taking care of old people. Their immune system is not functioning properly as young people does. They are prone to different types of diseases. Extra precaution is advised in order to eliminate the risk. 2. Understand legislation and policies relating to prevention and control of infection. 2.1 Outline current legislation and regulatory body standards which are relevant to the prevention and control of infection Answer

legislation and policies relating to prevention and control of infections are:

a.) The Health and Safety at Work Act 1974 and Management of Health and Safety at Work Regulations 1999 – Both employers and employees are responsible for their own actions in the workplace.

b.) The Public Health (Control of Diseases) Act 1984 – Provides information on the legal requirements for the reporting of contagious or infectious diseases, for example, Tuberculosis, Hepatitis, HIV and Legionella.

c.) Food Safety Act 1990 – The requirements of this act apply to any area where food is prepared, stored or eaten. d.) Food hygiene

e.) Reporting Injuries Diseases and Dangerous Occurrence Regulations (RIDDOR) 1995 – The employer or manager in control of work premises has a responsibility under RIDDOR to report any work related accidents or disease which result in serious injury or an employee being “off sick” due to injury for more than three working days.

f.) The Public Health (Infectious Diseases) Regulations 1998 – Describe the reporting systems and the types
of disease which must be reported.

g.) Management of Health and Safety at Work Regulations 1999 – Requires all staff to be provided with adequate and appropriate training and a set of working instructions demonstrating ‘safe working practices’ for work related activities. h.) Medicines and Health care Regulatory Agency (MHRA)

i.) Standards for Better Health 2006
j.) Control of Substance Hazardous to Health (COSHH)
2.2 describe local and organizational policies relevant to the prevention and control of infection Answer:

The local policies which is our home, the workplace that im working and organizational policies such as CQC and toe legislations in relation with care standards relevant to the prevention and control of infection are proper hand washing technique before and after living the care homes not only that but also before and after caring the service user like bathing, grooming, and feeding .

Use of protective equipments such as gloves and aprons to prevent spread of infection. Safe use and disposal of sharps where sharps should be on a proper yellow or orange container after usage which we have in the care home. And roper administration of medication. 3 Understand systems and procedures relating to the prevention and control f infection. 3.1 describe procedures and systems relevant to the prevention and control of infection Answer:

Infection control in any Care homes have system and procedures with regards to control of infection like hand washing techniques program hand rub techniques . posting on how to segregate wastes like soiled pad or nappies, used needles and empty bottles of shower gels. proper disposal of rubbishes like pads must be going on a yellow bag. Soiled linen on a red bag and papers, empty bottle of shower gels, left over food must be on a black bag.

A knowledge of how infection is being contaminated or contacted like chain of infections . that we get mostly contagious disease by being in contact with infected persons through blood and body fluids. Proper disposal of sharp objects including needles or blades used to the individual. By attending the trainings and seminars which will enhance our knowledge and skills on how to prevent and how to minimize the risk on spread of

Wearing personal protective equipment such as gloves and aprons. 3.2 explain the potential impact of an outbreak of infection on the individual and the organisation Answer:

The potential impact of an outbreak of infection on the organisation will be, cost implication, staff sickness levels due to spread of infection, reduction in patient and public confidence older people have low immune system.

They might tend to die if infection arises. Therefore, one of the family might tend to tell their friends not to go on that nursing home due to low standards of care on the care home. not delivering regulatory standards it happens like neglect on an individual, low on standards of care. loss of confidence in organisation, loss of earnings worst case scenario is closure of the company due to minimum quality of care that they are showing to the residents.

It is possible that no family wants their love ones to stay on a low standard care home this will end up to closure of the business. For individual prolong period of recovery, loss of appetite , weakness, fatigue, worst thing that will happen is Death. 4. Understand the importance of risk assessment in relation to the prevention and control of infection 4.1 Define the term risk

Risk is a situation involving exposure to danger or harm.
4.2 outline potential risk of infection within the workplace Answer:
a.) Cough and cold (Staff or an individual that has flu)
b.) Contaminated utensils
c.) Individuals that has MRSA
d.) Improper disposal of bodily fluids
e.) Improper food handling or cooking
f.) Improper application of dressing on the wound
g.) Failure to wear protective equipments
h.) Improper hand washing
i.) Not isolating the individual if they are ill

4.3 describe the process of carrying out a risk assessment
The simplest and most straight forward way on carrying out risk assessment is to identify the hazards. Decide who might be harmed and how evaluate the risks and decide on precaution. Record your findings and implement them Review your assessment and update if necessary. 4.4 Explain the importance of carrying out risk assessment

The importance of carrying out risk assessment is to Avoid the risk, Evaluate those that cannot be avoided, Combat the source of the risk, Adapt the work and/or processes by looking or assessing the environment inside and out of the care home. If potential risk might happen. I need to get rid of it, to avoid accidents or hazard. Replace the dangerous by the non dangerous by fixing things that needs to be fix, like, open wirings, broken wheelchairs, hoists, disassembled side rails.

Develop coherent overall prevention policy like posting hazard warnings on each and every corner of the homes, cosh cupboard and by attending seminars as well., Give collective protective measures priority over individual protective measures by using gloves and aprons, Give appropriate instructions to employees by giving a leaflets to read and organising a seminar. create a plan to eliminate the risk and implement it as soon as possible so that no one will be at risk. 5 Understand the importance of using personal protective equipment (PPE) in the prevention and control of infection 5.2 describe different types of PPE

There are many type of personal protective equipment. They are fall protection equipment for specialised use when working at height and danger of a fall exist. Head protection for use in situations where hazards include striking head against fixed objects or being struck by either moving objects at head height or falling objects from above.

Hearing protection for use when exposed to high noise levels. Eye protection for use when using work equipment for cutting, grinding or finishing purposes. Foot protection for use on-site as appropriate to the hazards faced. Hand and forearm protection for use in various situations to protect the hands from identified hazards and PPE (personal protective equipment) for care homes are Gloves and Aprons masks and gowns to protect us from spillage of bodily fluids. 5.3 Explain
reasons for use of PPE

Personal Protective Equipment is the term given to items that can protect both the wearer and the person that comes in contact with the wearer. It prevents the transmission of bacteria that can spread disease. It is to protect the staff from spillages of bodily fluids from the individual, protection of service users/patients, protection of cross infection between individuals. So that infection will not spread from a person to another. I usually wear it before handling residents that are contaminated with fluids, such as urine, saliva, water spillage and if someone defecates.

I also use it when giving them a proper wash, showering them and cleaning their feces.  5.4 State current relevant regulations and legislations relating to PPE Answer:

Current regulations and legislations: legal requirement in health and safety legislation for the provision and use of PPE where employees’ or others may be at risk.

• The Public Health (Control of Diseases) Act,
• The Public Health (Infectious Diseases) Regulations, 1998 • Health and Safety at Work Act, 1974
• The Management of Health and Safety at Work Act (amended 1994) • Control of Substances Hazardous to Health (COSHH) 2002 • Food Safety Act, 1990
• Reporting of Injuries, Diseases and Dangerous Occurrences (RIDDOR) 1995 • The Environmental Protection (Duty of Care) Regulations 1991

• Health Protection Agency Bill 2004
• Other new/current legislation that affects infection control • Hazardous waste regulations 2005
• The Food Safety (General Food Hygiene) Regulation (Department of Health, 1995)

5.5 Describe employees’ responsibilities regarding the use of PPE. Answer:

It is the responsibility of employees to ensure that they take reasonable care to protect their own health and safety and that of their co-workers and
other persons in or near the workplace. Report to management any hazardous or potentially hazardous conditions or risks that they identify in their work environment. Participate in training provided by the employer, regarding the appropriate use, care, and maintenance of PPE. Uses PPE in accordance with instruction provided and follow. 5.6 Describe employers’ responsibilities regarding the use of PPE. Answer:

The employers responsibilities with regards to use of personal protective equipment is to familiarise themselves with the content of this Code, and actively inform staff. Ensure that specific assessments are carried out for both the risk to be protected against and the different types of PPE that could be used to protect an individual from that risk. On this basis the suitability of the selected PPE against the risk will be assessed, thereby ensuring any PPE provided is suitable for the intended purpose.

Simple and obvious assessments that can easily be explained need not be recorded, however more complex assessments should be recorded and kept readily accessible to those who need to know the results. These assessments should be periodically reviewed, including consideration as to whether more suitable PPE has subsequently become available.

They must ensure that employees receive suitable and sufficient information, instruction and training with regard to PPE supplied. Take all reasonable steps to ensure the full and proper use, storage, maintenance, cleaning, examination, repair and replacement of PPE. This may involve taking disciplinary measures in accordance with agency disciplinary procedures, where employees fail to use PPE correctly. Note: Much of this may be delegated to the PPE user, however a supervisory and monitoring role is retained to ensure actions are carried out.]

And periodically carry out recorded audits of any PPE held by team members (i.e.at least annually). This shall include a visual inspection of the equipment andstorage accommodation provided.

5.7 Describe the correct practice in the application and removal of PPE Answer:

The proper application of wearing PPE in my care home is to wash our hands thoroughly and use the proper hand washing technique (which is posted in each and every wall were we could wash our hands) . dry the hands properly wear the aprons first and wear the gloves (vinyl) appropriately. Gloves should be worn as soon as we enter the individuals room which im going to be in contact with. And it should be not be worn outside the room walking on the hallway. It should be disposed immediately after having in contact to the service user.

After using it to an individual, gloves and aprons should be disposed in a yellow plastic bag container, wash the hands properly again before leaving the individuals rooms. 5.8 Describe the correct procedure for disposal of used PPE

The proper way of disposing a used personal protective equipment is all items must be removed and discarded carefully, perform hand hygiene after gloves/gown removal before your hands go near your face (for removal of masks and eye protection) and after completion of PPE removal, and any time you suspect your hands are contaminated during PPE removal.

Take the aprons off first before you take ur gloves off, crumple the apron roll it like a ball and seal it inside the gloves by removing the gloves inside and out. Glove removal – outside of glove is ‘dirty’; use glove-to-glove, skin-to-skin handling method, grasp outside edge near wrist, peel away from hand, turning glove inside out, hold in opposite gloved hand, slide un gloved finger under wrist of remaining glove, peel off from inside, creating a bag for both gloves, discard, in disposing the used equipment, Our company provides different coloured bags so we can dispose different types of used equipment or soiled clothes.

The yellow bag is used in order for us to dispose infectious tools or equipments such us soiled gloves and aprons thats been used to the resident, soiled pads , catheters etc. And when the bag is full, i disposed it on a yellow bin located outside the nursing home, and wash my hands again after disposing the bag. 6. Understand the importance of good personal hygiene in the prevention and control of infections 6.1 describe the key principles of Good personal hygiene

A key principles of good personal hygiene is should be properly groomed and washed, smells good, teeth were brush at list 2 – 3 times a day every after meal, skin is moist and creamed, axillary part is been washed and anti-perspirant or deodorant is applied, hair is washed everyday, clothes are changed everyday. If possible apply some perfume every after shower. Nails are cut regularly. Hair is tied up if its to long. And lastly having a bath or shower everyday especially before and after work. 6.3 describe the correct sequence of hand washing.

Wet hands with water. Apply enough soap and hand wash to cover all hand surfaces, then rub hands palm to palm, right palm over the other hand with interlaced fingers and vice versa.

Palm to palm with fingers interlaced, backs of fingers to opposing palms with fingers interlocked in rotational rubbing of left thumb clasped in right palm and vice versa, rotational rubbing, backwards and forwards with clasped fingers of right hand in left palm and vice versa. Rinse hands with water and dry thoroughly with towel. Duration of procedure: At least 15 seconds. 6.4 Explain when and why hand-washing should be carried out

Hand washing is vital in preventing contamination of food by food handlers. Harmful bacteria such as E. coli, Salmonella and Staphylococcus aureus and viruses (e.g. [ norovirus) present on the hands of food workers are removed by proper hand washing techniques. How often should food workers wash their hands. Hands should be washed as often as necessary and always: Before starting work Before handling cooked or ready-to-eat food. After handling or preparing raw food. After handling waste.

After cleaning duties. After using the toilet . After blowing nose, sneezing or coughing. After eating drinking or smoking. After handling money. before and after handling a resident. Before and After taking the gloves. After disposing the garbage or rubbish in a right container.

Before and after leaving the workplace, before and after eating or handling food. – When to wash: before starting work; after finishing work; before and after contact with an individual/service user/patient; after using the toilet; after contact with any body fluids; following the removal of disposable gloves; before and after handling food; after handling used laundry and clinical waste – Why: to reduce the risk of carrying infection on hands which could be risk to self or others 6.5
describe the types of products that should be used for hand-washing. Answer:

Plain soap and water is sufficient for most routine daily activities.

The seven step procedure for cleaning hands should be used. Hand washing with soap and water suspends the micro-organisms in solution and allows them to be rinsed off – this is referred to as mechanical removal of micro-organisms. Liquid soap is preferred for clinical settings, and enough soap applied to ensure the hands are well lathered all over. The dispenser should be wall mounted and regularly maintained, with individual replacement cartridges that are discarded when empty.

There should be nominated staff to be responsible for this, enough to allow for holiday/sickness cover. Hand sanitzers are a practical and acceptable alternative to hand washing, provided that hands are not visibly soiled or dirty. It is not a cleansing agent and visible contaminants must be removed with soap and water. It should be applied using an evidence based technique, we recommend the seven step procedure for cleaning hands, and about a 3ml dose dispensed (approx 1-2 metered doses of a 800 or 1000ml pump container) should be used until both hands are dry. Hand sanitzer should not be used when there is diarrhoea or vomiting as it is less effective against some organisms than washing with soap and water.

Hand sanitser can be used consecutively until the hands start to feel tacky when they should be washed with soap and water. 6.6 describe correct procedures that relate to skin care

The correct way of skin care is trough washing your body most specially the hands armpit and feet. moisturise it by applying cream to your skin, The importance of general hand care and risks if hands are not cared for and become cut and chapped; dressing cuts and grazes to the skin, and other, dryness of skin can also harbour bacteria in virus which can cause different types of skin diseases. If u got cut for example in the work setting, wash the cut thoroughly dry it with a clean gauze or cloth and apply some band aid to cover the wound to prevent the entering of micro organisms.

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