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Infection Essay Topics & Paper Examples

Morbidity and Mortality Weekly report

According to the report of CDC’s Morbidity and Mortality Weekly report, in the year 2007 , there were 17,883 cases of food borne infections. A number of cases were seen for salmonella with an approximate incidence rate of 14. 92 per 100,000 people. The common infection found was campylobacter with an incidence rate of 12. 79 for every 100,000 people. Finally shigella infection incidence rate was 6. 26 for every 100,000 people. These rates of infections were high in young children under the age of 5 years. The main causes for catching these bacterial illnesses is due to children riding in a shopping cart near raw meat or poultry, visit to day-care-center, living conditions of a farm or by playing…

Virology Case

What ways do viral illnesses spread and How can we protect ourselves from these illnesses Have you ever got coughed on and then the next day you are at home in your bed resting because you got sick. Well, everyone probably knows what I am talking about and got sick this way at least once in their life time. Today I am here to talk about many different ways a viral illness can spread and how you can protect from it. The most common illness you hear about the most is the common cold. The cold can spread in many ways. It can spread by someone coughing or sneezing on you, but that isn’t the only way. The person with…

Avian Flu: Influenza a Virus

The National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases (NIAID) awarded H5N1 vaccine contracts to Aventis Pasteur (now Sanofi Pasteur) of Swiftwater, Pennsylvania, and to Chiron Corporation of Emeryville, California. All known viruses that cause influenza in birds belong to the species influenza A virus. Adaptation is not exclusive. Being adapted towards a particular species does not preclude adaptations, or partial adaptations, towards infecting different species While its most highly pathogenic strain (H5N1) had been spreading throughout Asia since 2003, avian influenza reached Europe in 2005, and the Middle East, as well as Africa, the following year.[8] On January 22, 2012, China reported its second human death due to bird flu in a month following other fatalities in Vietnam and Cambodia.[9]…

Journal Teratogen

1. Which teratogen did you choose and why? The teratogen I choose to do this assignment on is Cytomegalovirus (CMV). The reason why I choose this teratogen is because I wanted to learn more about it and how to prevent this infectious disease. I am aware it is closely related to Herpes. I want to know what similarities and difference Cytomegalovirus had compared with Herpes. 2. What are the potential short-and long-term effects of this teratogen on the developing person? Fetuses who are infected before birth usually show no symptoms of a CMV infection until after they are born, although some can develop hearing, vision, neurological, and developmental problems over time. In a few cases, there are symptoms at birth,…

Qualitative Research and Respondents

1.1. Introduction Leptospirosis is one of the deadliest bacterial infection that I commonly acquired in tropical countries. you can get the disease when you were exposed to soils and waters that is contaminated by leptospira bacteria. Rodents such as rats are the primary carriers of the leptospirosis bacteria. It is important to identify the signs of rodent infestation at home. If you regularly see rodent droppings around food packages, in drawers, cupboards, under the sink, then your house is infested. Whenever you see such droppings or boxes of food, or wirings that has rodent bites, you must take an action. Symptoms can take 2 – 26 days (average 10 days) to develop this may include: dry cough, fever, headache, muscle…

Infection Control

Infection control is covered under Regulation 12 of the Health and Social Care Act 2008(Regulated Activities) Regulations 2010. It states that: (1) The registered person must, so far as reasonably practicable, ensure that— (a) service users; (b) persons employed for the purpose of the carrying on of the regulated activity; and (c) others who may be at risk of exposure to a health care associated infection arising from the carrying on of the regulated activity, are protected against identifiable risks of acquiring such an infection by the means specified in paragraph (2). (2) The means referred to in paragraph (1) are— (a) the effective operation of systems designed to assess the risk of and to prevent, detect and control the…

Pathogen Scanner

Hog raising is a very popular enterprise in the Philippines such that there is a proliferation of backyard producers, which dominates the swine industry and a healthy viable commercial sector. Despite the crises facing the swine industry, still many people are venturing in this enterprise. Piggeries are type of factory farm specialized for raising of pigs up to slaughter weight. Some people keep pigs as pet but most of people keep them as a source of meat products, either directly or indirectly. The pig is the friendliest animal on the farm by far: always available for a scratch behind the ears, hardly ever moody, and quick with a grunt of delight. Yet the pig would also eat you for supper…

Physical Assessment

EYES: Patient denies any problems associated with vision, does not wear any form of corrective lenses but does not remember her last vision test. Patient denies any pain, redness/swelling, watering/discharge, or allergies that affect her eyes. No history of trauma or surgery associated with eyes, no history of glaucoma. Patient is a student nurse and uses protective eyewear when suspecting possible contact with human secretions, with no episodes of exposure while working. EARS: Patient denies earache, infections, discharge, hearing loss, tinnitus or vertigo. Patient reports daily use of Q-tip, cotton swabs to clean ears. Does not remember last hearing examination. NOSE: Patient denies any discharge or congestion in the nose. Denies any allergies, frequent upper respiratory infections, sinus pain, nosebleeds,…

Hospital Acquired Infections

The State of Illinois has several guidelines and activities in place as techniques to prevent nosocomial infections. In Illinois, Healthcare Infection Control Practices Advisory Committee (HICPAC), is charged with providing advice and guidance to the Secretary, Department of Health and Human Services; the Director, CDC and the Director of the National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases (NCEZID), regarding the practice of hospital infection control and strategies for surveillance, prevention, and control of healthcare-associated infections. Antimicrobial resistance and related events in settings where healthcare is provided, including hospitals, ambulatory, long-term care facilities, and home health agencies, (HCIPAC, 2008) There are certain guidelines that need to be followed when working as a nurse in the state of Illinois. There are…

Nosocomial Staph Infection

Staphylococcal infections are communicable conditions caused by specific bacteria. Infections from Staphlococcus frequently cause the formation of abscesses. Staph is the leading cause of nosocomial (hospital-acquired) infections in the United States. Staph exists on the skin and/or in the nostrils of 20-30% of healthy people. It is also sometimes found in the breast tissue, the mouth, and also in the genital, urinary, and upper respiratory tracts. Some people carry Staph in throat, vagina, or rectum without ever becoming ill. Staph is normally harmless, but when it gets in the bloodstream through a break in the skin it can cause serious infections and even death. The risk of staph infection is highest in newborns, women who are breastfeeding, intravenous drug users,…

Tuberculosis: Infectious Disease and Tb Patients

Tuberculosis is a common, and in many cases lethal, infectious disease caused by various strains of mycobacteria, usually Mycobacteria tuberculosis. One third of the world’s population is thought to have been infected with M. tuberculosis with new infections occurring at a rate of about one per second. In 2007, there were an estimated 13.7 million chronic active cases globally, while in 2010, there were an estimated 8.8 million new cases and 1.5 million associated deaths, mostly occurring in developing countries. The distribution of tuberculosis is not uniform across the globe; about 80% of the population in many Asian and African countries test positive in tuberculin tests, while only 5–10% of the United States population tests positive. The main symptoms of…

Halloween Night to Prom Night

Hepatitis A is inflammation (irritation and swelling) of the liver from the hepatitis A virus. See also: * Hepatitis * Hepatitis A vaccine * Hepatitis B * Hepatitis C Causes, incidence, and risk factors The hepatitis A virus is found mostly in the stools and blood of an infected person about 15 – 45 days before symptoms occur and during the first week of illness. You can catch hepatitis A if: * You eat or drink food or water that has been contaminated by stools (feces) containing the hepatitis A virus (fruits, vegetables, shellfish, ice, and water are common sources of the hepatitis A virus) * You come in contact with the stool or blood of a person who currently…

Aboriginal Quality of Life in Canada

The state of health and health care for Canadian Aboriginal people is currently not improving, “Canadian Aboriginals tend to bear a disproportionate burden of illness; an outcome linked to their economic and social conditions [and] oppression” (Newbold 1998). European contact would forever change the course of life for the Aboriginals and their communities in Canada. It was only after the encounter between the old world and new world that two completely separate ecosystems had interaction between each other. Both worlds changed in radical ways through people, plants, animals, varmints and pathogens, this is known today as the “Columbian Exchange”. The New pathogens introduced to the Indigenous people who had no immunity, caused major depopulation up to 80 – 90% during…

Evidence Informed Decision Making Report

Introduction This paper will discuss wound care, the effectiveness of saline versus water when cleaning wounds, and the experience of patients undergoing long term wound care. The purpose of this report is to demonstrate understanding of evidence informed decision making, researchable questions, searching the available evidence and research designs. Background Webster’s Dictionary by Guralnik (1970) defines a wound as “an injury, especially one in which the skin or another external surface is torn, pierced, cut, or otherwise broken.” Wounds can be acquired from accidents or from medical procedures such as operations or surgeries. Anytime a patient acquires a wound, the care given to the person and at the site of injury is an essential part in the healing process. Proper…

Infection Control

1.1 and 1.2 Bacteria – are micro-organisms that consist of only one cell. Bacteria multiply by splitting themselves in two, which is called a binary fission. Because of this they can increase in number rapidly. The majority are harmless, but some can be pathogenic which results in bacterial infection occuring. Bacterial infections can be treated by using antibiotics. Bacteria can evolve a resistance to antibiotic e.g. MRSA. Some diseases caused by bacteria include tuberculosis, pneumonia, salmonella, tetanus and syphilis. Viruses – are extremely small particles made from protein and either DNA or RNA. They are not made up of cells instead they invade the living cells of other organisms and use them to produce many copies of themselves. Viruses are…

The Beautiful World of Pus

I am willing to admit the initial sight of thick, yellowish green drainage weeping from reddened, inflamed tissue is not a thing of beauty to the untrained eye, but have you ever stopped to consider the wonder and intrigue of Pus? Our bodies have abundant surface area that, if compromised, can expose us to morbidity and potential mortality. Thankfully, through our amazingly efficient immune system, within hours, sometimes minutes, of our initial inoculation by infection or foreign substances, our bodies mount a swift, tactical response. Proteins and white blood cells are beckoned to the battle by the sentinel cytokines which create a cascade of events to stop, surround and eliminate the enemy. The neutrophils, white blood cells born to fight…

Communicable Disease

A communicable disease is a bacteria or virus that can is transferred from person to person, or from animals or the physical environment to individuals by a variety of ways. For example air and water, to contaminated articles or fomites, insect and animal bites (Reigelman, p. 210, 2011). The spreading of a communicable disease is easily transferred and can range from a common cold to anthrax making the disease contagious. I will be discussing the communicable disease chlamydia and how the infection affects individuals. Chlamydia is a curable and a preventable disease, and with awareness and prevention individuals can protect themselves from contacting the contagious disease. According to Center for Disease Control (2011), chlamydia is a sexually transmitted diseases (STD)….

Leptospirosis Intro

Leptospirosis is an infectious disease caused by a type of bacteria called a spirochete. Leptospirosis can be transmitted by many animals such as rats, skunks, opossums, raccoons, foxes, and other vermin. It is transmitted though contact with infected soil or water. The soil or water is contaminated with the waste products of an infected animal. People contract the disease by either ingesting contaminated food or water or by broken skin and mucous membrane contact with the contaminated water or soil. The infection causes a systemic illness that often leads to renal and hepatic dysfunction. The disease was first recognized as an occupational disease of sewer workers in 1883. In 1886, Weil described the clinical manifestations in 4 men who had…

Safeguarding Children and Young People

1. Complete the following table. (Ref. 2.1, 2.2) Common childhood illnesses Signs and symptoms Ear infections, the child may pull or rub their ear, and may have a temperature. If the child is well but just has an earache, they can take paracetamol or ibuprofen for 12-24 hours . you should never put any oils or object into the ear as it could cause further damage. If the earache worsens in 48 hours you should contact your GP. Ear infections, the child may pull or rub their ear, and may have a temperature. If the child is well but just has an earache, they can take paracetamol or ibuprofen for 12-24 hours . you should never put any oils or…

So many careers to choose from

If I had to pick it would be a dentist. Without a dentist people’s mouths would be dirty and yellow. I would like to be a dentist because without dentists you will get mouth and body diseases, without dentists your mouth bacteria may become too powerful, and dentists clean your teeth Without dentists you will get mouth and body diseases. Your oral health may affect, be affected by or contribute to various diseases and conditions. Endocarditis, Gum disease and dental procedures that cut your gums may allow bacteria to enter your bloodstream. If you have a weak immune system or a damaged heart valve, this can cause infection in other parts of the body — such as an infection of…

Dermatophytosis

A clinical condition caused by fungal infection of the skin in humans¹; but all domestic animals are susceptible.³ Dermatophytosis can be found in dogs (most often puppies), cats, cattle, sheep (common in show lambs), goats, horses, swine, rodents, rabbits (most often in young , newly weaned animals), and birds. The condition is caused by fungi of several different species and not by parasitic worms. In pets, the fungus responsible for the disease survives in skin and on the outer surface of hairs. They grow best in warm and humid environments and are, therefore, more common in tropical and subtropical regions. Transmission: The fungus takes advantage of skin belonging to those with reduced immune capacity; keep in mind that skin must be…

Prevention of Cauti

Prevention of Catheter Associated Urinary Tract Infection (CAUTI) CAUTIs are the most commonly reported HAI in the US. Although morbidity and mortality from CAUTI is considered to be relatively low compared to other HAIs, the high prevalence of urinary catheter use leads to a large cumulative burden of infections with resulting infectious complications and deaths (“Prevention of CAUTI-Acute care settings,” 2011, p. 1). In addition, bacteriuria frequently leads to unnecessary antimicrobial use, and urinary drainage systems may serve as reservoirs for MDR bacteria and a source of transmission to other patients (“Prevention of CAUTI-Acute care settings,” 2011, p. 4). Healthcare-associated infections exact a significant toll on human life. They are among the top ten leading causes of death in the…

Pertussis

More commonly known as whooping cough, Pertussis is a contagious infection of the respiratory tract caused by the bacteria Bordatella Pertussis. Thick mucus accumulates in the airways, provoking heavy coughing spells. Pertussis can be spread via droplet. The infected person may sneeze or cough and the tiny germ droplets may be inhaled by any bystander. Whooping cough was seen mostly in children before, but after the development of vaccines against it the infection is found in many teens or adults whose immunity has faded and babies. Although death from Pertussis is rare, it is important for pregnant women especially to be vaccinated against the infection. Pertussis is characterized by uncontrollable, severe coughing and a high pitched “whooping” sound. It can…

Principles of infection prevention and control

The Public Health (Control of Diseases) Act 1984. Personal Protective Equipment (PPE) Regulations 1992, Controlled Waste Regulations 1992, Management of Health and Safety at Work Regulations 1999, The Food Safety Act 1990 and also the Food Safety Act (General Food Hygiene) Regulations 1995. The Public Health (Control of Diseases) Act 1984 states that doctors in England and Wales are obligated to make a ‘Proper Officer’ of the local authority aware if they are aware of or suspect an individual is suffering from what is deemed a notifiable disease. The procedure in that scenario to be carried out is that a doctor is required to complete a certificate stating the individual’s personal details such as name, age, sex and also the…

America’s Greatest Fear

The Ebola virus was discovered in the late 1970s by the international community as the causative agent of major outbreaks of hemorrhagic fever in Africa’s Sudan and Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC) and Sudan (Vasilyevich IV, et al. 2005). Immediately, the International scientific teams moved in to deal with these highly virulent epidemics where their findings revealed that the transmission had exponentially ceased; however, the team could not reconstruct a considerable data from the survivors of the epidemic. The high death rate of medical staff resulted to the closure of many medical facilities, thus doing away with major centers for dissemination of infection through the use of untreated needles, syringes and the lack of barrier-nursing techniques. The deadly Ebola…

Using chlorhexidine-alcohol (CHG) before surgery

A1. Procedure The preoperative procedure of using with chlorhexidine-alcohol (CHG) before surgery has been proven to be more effective to reduce the number of surgical site infections (SSI) than the use of povidone iodine. By reducing the number of infections post surgery, it can lower patient morbidity and can reduce hospital stay time and eliminate further unnecessary costs. A2a. Basis for Practice (who determined ) The basis for changing the method of using chlorhexidine-alcohol bath before all surgeries and not just the open heart patients. In HCA facility, the infectious disease nurse (ID), wound care nurse and the operating room (OR) manager have collaborated to find an effort to reduce the rate of surgical site infections. In an interview with…

Causes and Spread of Infection

1.1Identify the differences between bacteria, viruses, fungi and parasites Bacteria are a single celled organism that multiplies by themselves. The majority of bacteria’s are harmless and beneficial to the human body but some can cause infectious diseases. A bacterium usually affects one part of the body and doesn’t spread across or through the body. Bacterial infections are normally treated with a cause of antibiotics Viruses are made up of genes and proteins that spread throughout the body by invading the body’s own cells so they can reproduce and multiply in the body. They use the body’s cells as a host because they are unable to multiply on their own. They are normally spread directly from human to human. Fungi like…

Hepatitis B epidemiology and prevention strategies

Hepatitis B is a serious viral infection which is characterized by hepatic cell inflammation and disturbed liver functioning and is associated with high morbidity and mortality rates. It is a disease known to mankind since antiquity, given that cases of epidemic jaundice are reported in ancient Chinese documents as well as in Hippocrates’ writings in the 5th century B. C. Similar epidemics have been described during the Medieval and the Renaissance years, however, the first recorded cases of hepatitis B are probably dated in 1883 in German shipyard workers following the administration of small pox vaccine. In 1965, Blumberg identified a specific antigen in the serum of an Australian Aborigine, named “Australia antigen”, which was later linked to hepatitis B….

Infectious Diseases

#4.) What is the rationale for suggesting a lack of strenuous physical activity to a patient with an EBV infection? When an individual has an EBV infection, they will (most likely) also have an enlarged spleen and inflamed liver. Avoiding physical activity for about four to five weeks after diagnosis is insisted on to prevent a spleen rupture. The spleen will already be more sensitive within this state of the infection, and rupturing it can be fatal. Reference: http://medical-dictionary.thefreedictionary.com/Epstein+barr+virus+mononucleosis #5.) What innate and acquired protective mechanisms should have been elicited in response to Blake’s viral infection? For the case of the EBV, a person’s innate immunity in a way preps for acquired (adaptive) immunity. Innate: Once the virus’ DNAs and…

Hand Hygiene Assignment

Read the Hand washing article from the CDC Emerging Infectious Diseases Journal and answer the following questions. This document is posted in the Read and Study section of this module. When was this article published? (Hint: Check the bottom of the pages) March-April 2001 In the DEFINITIONS Section What are the two major groups of organisms? 1. Resident Flora – Normally reside on skin 2. Transient Flora – Contaminants What is hand hygiene? Hand hygiene “is the simplest most effective measure for preventing nosocomial infections”. It includes actions, such as hand washing and hand disinfection, that will reduce the amount of transient flora and remove dirt from the skin in order to prevent the spread of infection. Hand washing can…