• relations which are the outcome of the employment relationship in an industrial enterprise
• every industrial relations system creates a complex of rules and regulations to govern the work place and work community
• main purpose: to maintain harmonious relations between labour and management by solving their problems through collective bargaining
• the government/state shapes industrial relations with the help of law, rules, agreements, awards of the courts
• The concept of industrial relations was developed with the industrial revolution
• Prior to this it was considered master and servant relationship
• The workers were considered and treated like any other commodity which could be easily purchased and replaced
• Wages and conditions of services were poor and this situation was not only in India but also in England and other European countries
• The term Industrial Relations comprise Industry and relations.
•to improve economic conditions of workers in the present scenario of industrial management and political government
•to avoid Industrial Conflicts and develop harmonious relations
•to raise productivity to a higher level
•to reduce strikes, lockouts and gheros by providing better wages and improved living conditions and fringe benefits to the workers
•encouraging the sense of ownership among workers for Industries
•to enhance government control over units and plants that are running under losses or where production has to be regulated in public interest
•improved Industrial Relation will protect the interest of labour and well as management.
• Trade Union:
Trade unions try to protect interest of workers, they insist upon the development of cultural and educational qualities of there members.
• Employers & their organizations:
They try to protect the interest of employers, to create healthy industrial atmosphere, so that the objectives of the organization may be achieved. They try to get full co-operation of workers for achieving this objective.
The government plays an important role in establishing better industrial relations. Government passes various laws to protect the interest of both employers and employees.
Causes of poor Industrial
• An attitude of contempt towards the workers on the part of the management
• Inadequate fixation of wages or improper wage structure
• Unhealthy working conditions at the workplace
• Lack of human relations skills on the part of supervisors and managers
• Desire of workers for higher bonus, wages or daily allowances
• Desire of employers to pay as little as possible to its workers
• Inadequate welfare facilities
• Dispute on sharing the gains of productivity
• Retrenchment, dismissal and lockouts by the management
• Strikes by the workers
• Inter-union rivals
• Mental inertia on the part of the management.
▫ conflicts, disorder or unrest arising between workers and employers on any ground
▫ Such disputes finally result in strikes, lockouts and mass refusal of employees to work, until resolved
▫ harm both parties employees and employers
▫ always against the interest of both employees and the employers
Principles assigned by courts for judging the nature of disputes
• The dispute must affect large number of workmen
• The dispute should be taken up by the Industry Union
• The parties involved in dispute must have direct interest
• The consulted demand must become grievance
• Workmen can raise Industrial Dispute himself under
Section 2A of Industrial Disputes Act -1947
Forms of Industrial Disputes
• The Industrial Dispute can arise in any of the following form given below:
•termination of work
•refusal to work of any number of persons will result to a strike
•if workers are going on mass casual leave under common understanding this will also result in strike
•the workmen on strike must be employed in an ‘industry’ which has not been closed down
•the relationship of employers and employees continues even though in a state of suspension
• Section 2(1) of the Industrial Disputes Act, 1947 defines “lockout” to mean the temporary closing of a place of employment or the suspension of work, • Or, the refusal by an employers to continue to employ any number of persons employed by him,
• lockout, thus, is the counterpart of strike – the corresponding weapon the hands of employer to resist the collective demands of workmen or to enforce his terms
• the suspension of work as a disciplinary measure does not amount to lockout • temporary suspension of work called lay-off is not lock-out
• Gherao means encirclement of the managers to criminally intimidate him to accept the demands of the workers.
• As per the oxford English Dictionary:
▫ Gherao means a protest in which workers prevent employers leaving a place of work until demands are met.