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Indo-European languages Essay

The corpus of Sanskrit literature encompasses a rich tradition of poetry and drama as well as scientific, technical, philosophical and dharma texts. Sanskrit continues to be widely used as a ceremonial language in Hindu religious rituals and Buddhist practice in the forms of hymns and mantras. Spoken Sanskrit has been revised in some villages with traditional institutions, and there are attempts at further popularisation. The Sanskrit verbal adjective sa? sk? ta- may be translated as “put together, constructed, well or completely formed; refined, adorned, highly elaborated”.

It is derived from the root sa? -skar- “to put together, compose, arrange, prepare”,[5] where sa? – “together” (as English same) and (s)kar- “do, make”. The term in the generic meaning of “made ready, prepared, completed, finished” is found in the Rigveda. Also in Vedic Sanskrit, as nominalised neuter sa? sk? tam, it means “preparation, prepared place” and thus “ritual enclosure, place for a sacrifice”. As a term for “refined or elaborated speech” the adjective appears only in Epic and Classical Sanskrit, in the Manusmriti and in the Mahabharata. The language referred to as sa? sk?

ta “the cultured language” has by definition always been a “sacred” and “sophisticated” language, used for religious and learned discourse in ancient India, and contrasted with the languages spoken by the people, prak? ta- “natural, artless, normal, ordinary”. Classical Sanskrit is the standard register as laid out in the grammar of Pa? ini, around the 4th century BCE. [6] Its position in the cultures of Greater India is akin to that of Latin and Greek in Europe and it has significantly influenced most modern languages of the Indian subcontinent, particularly in India, Bangladesh, Pakistan, Sri Lanka and Nepal.

[7] The pre-Classical form of Sanskrit is known as Vedic Sanskrit, with the language of the Rigveda being the oldest and most archaic stage preserved, its oldest core dating back to as early as 1500 BCE. [8] This qualifies Rigvedic Sanskrit as one of the oldest attestations of any Indo-Iranian language, and one of the earliest attested members of the Indo-European languages, the family which includes English and most European languages. [9] Sanskrit, as defined by Pa? ini, had evolved out of the earlier “Vedic” form. The beginning of Vedic Sanskrit can be traced as early as 1500–1200 BCE (for Rig-vedic and Indo-Aryan superstrate in Mitanni).

Scholars often distinguish Vedic Sanskrit and Classical or “Pa? inian” Sanskrit as separate ‘dialects’. Though they are quite similar, they differ in a number of essential points of phonology, vocabulary, grammar and syntax. Vedic Sanskrit is the language of the Vedas, a large collection of hymns, incantations (Samhitas), theological and religio-philosophical discussions in the Brahmanas and Upanishads. Modern linguists consider the metrical hymns of the Rigveda Samhita to be the earliest, composed by many authors over several centuries of oral tradition.

The end of the Vedic period is marked by the composition of the Upanishads, which form the concluding part of the Vedic corpus in the traditional view; however the early Sutras are Vedic, too, both in language and content. [10] Around the mid-1st millennium BCE, Vedic Sanskrit began the transition from a first language to a second language of religion and learning. For nearly 2,000 years, a cultural order existed that exerted influence across South Asia, Inner Asia, Southeast Asia, and to a certain extent, East Asia.

[11] A significant form of post-Vedic Sanskrit is found in the Sanskrit of the Hindu Epics—the Ramayana and Mahabharata. The deviations from Pa? ini in the epics are generally considered to be on account of interference from Prakrits, or “innovations” and not because they are pre-Paninean. [12] Traditional Sanskrit scholars call such deviations ar? a (???? ), meaning ‘of the ?? is’, the traditional title for the ancient authors. In some contexts, there are also more “prakritisms” (borrowings from common speech) than in Classical Sanskrit proper.

Buddhist Hybrid Sanskrit is a literary language heavily influenced by Middle Indic, based on early Buddhist prakrit texts which subsequently assimilated to the Classical Sanskrit standard in varying degrees. [13] According to Tiwari (1955), there were four principal dialects of classical Sanskrit: pascimottari (Northwestern, also called Northern or Western),madhyadesi (lit. , middle country), purvi (Eastern) and dak? i? i (Southern, arose in the Classical period). The predecessors of the first three dialects are even attested in Vedic Brahma? as, of which the first one was regarded as the purest (Kau? itaki Brahma? a, 7. 6).

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