Early offers from the west – The west wanted to trade with china but they rejected it. They had all the stuff they needed and didn’t need any outside help Self-Reliance – China thought they didn’t need any help from the outside Trading limitations – China was self-reliant, so it didn’t tend to trade with other countries. But then again the European countries wanted to trade with them. They set limits on which they would trade with.
Opium/Opium war of 1839 – Opium was the cash crop in China, there was a war between the British and the China, China lost and British declared a treaty Treaty of Nanjing – China lost and British declared the Treaty of Nanjing which states that British get Hong Kong Extraterritorial Rights – Is when foreigners do not have to ‘follow’ the rules of that country in a place Taiping Rebellion – Peace war with the peasants
Dowager Empress – Cixi was the last emperor of China, and was overthrown by her nephew Sphere of Influence – Another foreign country control your economic powers Open Door Policy – They opened the ‘doors’ to other countries, Doors as in trading Boxer Rebellion – The boxer rebellion was 1900 revolt that was aiming to end foreign rule over parts of their country 1905 World Tour – Where the Chinese went to other countries to study their ways and copy some Constitution – Wrote their constitution based off of Germany Kuomintang – Nationalist party; led by Sun Yixian; a forerunner of the party, overthrew the last emperor of the Qing Dynasty (1644) in 1912 Sun Yixian – 1st great leader of the Kuomintang; wanted a government based on the “three principles of the people” (nationalism, people’s right, people’s livelihood); lacked authority and military support to fufill his goal; turned over presidency to Yuan Shikai (a powerful General) Treaty of Versailles – The treaty of Versailles gave some of China’s land to Japan May 4th Movement – 5000 students plus many farmers, workers, and peasants protesting against Treaty of Versailles Mao Zedong – An assistant librarian at Beijing University; one of the founders of the Chinese Communist Party in Shanghai; one of China’s greatest leaders Chiang Kai-Shek – Son of a middle-class merchant; followers were bankers and business people; feared that social economy is like the USSR; peasants did not support Jiang, Communists; became president of the Nationalist Republic of China
Nationalist Republic of China – The national republic of china was a government-kind-of-thing that was lead by the Kuomintang “Swimming in the peasant sea” – Said by Mao Zedong because he took lenin’s idea but changed them a little bit because he believe the peasants could be revolutionaries… The Long March – Communists fled and hid from the Nationalists led by Jiang, 100,000 communists fled, thousands died from hunger, hypothermia, etc, communists were only one step ahead from Jiang’s forces Unity VS Japan India British East India Company (1600-1858) History- Inside 3 cities: Bombay, Madras, Calcutta; Sir Robert Clive defeats Indian & French army;
Leading power in India; Used British officers and Sepoy soldiers (Indian) Sepoy- Soldiers from India Jewel in the Crown” (Benefits of British Rule)- India has the 3rd largest railroad system, modern roads, telephone lines, damn, bridges, irrigation canals, sanitation/public health, schools/colleges, ended local welfare, brought relative peace Negatives of British Rule- British had political/economic power, restricted Indian-owned industries, emphasis on cash crops for Britain (reduced food production/famine), racial attitudes from British to Indians Sepoy Mutiny (1857) – Rumor of British smearing beef & pork lard on cartridges (religious issues); 85/90 people refused and sent to jail May 10, 1858- Sepoys rebelled, took over Delhi; British takes over, end of BEIC, start of RAJ, RAJ was British rule under India, Queen Victoria rewarded those who supported BEIC, and killed those who didn’t Ram Muhum Roy- Began a campaign to move India away from tradition (No caste system and no child marriages) Indian National Congress- Founded in 1885 at Bombay, separates Hindus and Muslims in 1905, Muslim league formed in 1906 Swaraj- Self-Rule
Amritsar Massacre (1919)- Indians protested against the Rowlatt Acts, 10,000 Indians protested by praying and fasting, the British fired into the crowd Gandhi – The massacre sets the stage for Gandhi to take over, people boycotted British shops and merchandise. One day, Indians marched 240 miles to the ocean to make their own salt, 60,000+ arrested including Gandhi Raj – (1858-1947) Partition – Had everything separate onto 2 countries; 10 million relocated, 1 million died in the process August 15th, 1947- India is the world’s largest democracy under Prime Minister Jawaharlal Nehru Japan Prior to the Meiji Era Shoguns- Top people in the Japanese military
Contact to the outside world- No contact to the outside world for peasants and workers Commodore Perry (Treaty of Kangawa) – Arrives in 1853 at Tokyo harbor scaring the Japanese with warships delivering a letter from US President Fillmore; US wanted free trade with Japan (Japan also trades with China and the Dutch), more coaling stations, more trading partners, a haven for ship-wrecked sailors; the Treaty of Kangawa in 1854 opened 2 ports for the US, in 1860, the US were allowed to trade, traditionalist did not like the plan Meiji Revolt (1868) – Samurai overthrew the Shogun The Last Shogun- The last shogun was Emperor Mutsuhito who ruled for 45 years, he wanted Japan to modernize; Mutsuhito sent diplomats to Europe and the US Meiji Reforms – Abolition of feudal system, land redistribution, westernize the school system (USA), modernize the army (Germany), modernize Navy (British), Emperor worship, human rights, religious freedom, written constitution (Germany), modern banking system. In 1890, Japan was the strongest military in Asia, decided to show how strong they are by attacking other countries Sino-Japanese War (1894-1895) – In 1885, China and Japan decide to leave Korea alone.
In the month of June in 1894, Korea asks China for help, Japan protested against the help and sent in their military, in only a few months, Japan takes down the entire Chinese Navy. Treaty of Shimonseki (1895) – Japan start having colonies in Korea and Japan Russo-Japanese War (1904-1905) – In 1903, Japan asks if Russia stays out of Manchuria, Russia refuses and they star fighting. Treaty of Portsmouth (1905) – In 1905, the US comes in and used the Treaty of Portsmouth to end the R-J war. They gave Japan its territory and forced Russia out of Manchuria Annexing of Korea – In 1905, Japan made Korea protectorate (sent advisors). In 1907, the Korean king quits and in 1910, Japan annexes Korea.