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Independent and depentent variables of psychology Essay

* Independent variable – The variable that is manipulated to test its effects on the dependent variable. * Dependent variable – The variable that is measured to see how it is changed by manipulations in the independent variable.


1 Coach Jones has noticed that her players tend to shoot a higher percentage from the free throw line when they play away, rather than at home. Surprised at this trend, she and her assistants decide to test this by comparing free-throw percentages over the course of a year.

a Independent variable- Playing at away vs. home
b Dependent variable- Free throws

2 Mr. Feldman has noticed the students in his high school Biology class tend to do better on tests taken on Friday, rather than tests taken on Monday. He decides to test the hypotheses.

a Independent variable- Testing date
b Dependent variable- Testing scores

3 John, Wendy, and Sean, all avid fishermen, have noticed that they always seem to catch more fish when it is raining outside. They decide to test the hypotheses.

a Independent variable-The rainy weather
b Dependent variable- The chance of catching more fish

4 Tony has designed a study to determine if alcohol really inhibits one’s ability to drive a car.

a Independent variable- Alcohol
b Dependent variable- Ability to drive

5 Does eating spinach really make you stronger?

a Independent variable – Spinach
b Dependent variable- Strength

6 Does staying physically fit increase your chances of living longer?

a Independent variable- Fitness.
b Dependent variable- Longer life.

7 Does taking classes in college really make you smarter?

a Independent variable- College
b Dependent variable- Intelligence

8 Is it true that animals that listen to classical music make happier pets?

a Independent variable- Classical music
b Dependent variable- Happy pets

9 Hypothesis: The taller a person is, the more likely they are to enjoy chocolate ice cream.

a Independent variable- Being Tall
b Dependent variable- Chocolate ice cream.

10 Hypothesis: The more a student attends class, the better they do on exam grades.

a Independent variable- Attendance
b Dependent variable- Higher exam score

11 Does peer pressure negatively affect teenagers attendance in school?

a Independent variable- Peer pressure
b Dependent variable- Poor attendance

12. A researcher wants to know whether eating chocolate makes people nervous.

a.Independent variable- Consuming chocolate
c Dependent variable- Nervousness

13. A researcher wants to know whether feeling nervous makes people eat chocolate.

a. Independent variable- Nervousness
b. Dependent variable- Consuming chocolate

14. Professor Marshall wants to know if eating sweets for a bedtime snack makes children active.

a. Independent variable- Sweets
b. Dependent variable- More active at bedtime

15. A researcher plans to investigate whether a cup of hot milk at night helps people relax so that they fall asleep quickly.

a. Independent variable- Cup of hot milk
b Dependent variable- relax and sleepiness

16. Gabrielle conducted a small experiment examining the effects of music on time perception. She had three groups of subjects. Group 1 was exposed to classical music, group 2 was exposed to contemporary rock and the third group received no music.

a. Independent variable- Music i.e.; classical & contemporary rock & silence b. Dependent variable- Perception of time.

17 A study was done on the effects of punishment on self-esteem.

a. Independent variable-Punishment
b. Dependent variable- Self-esteem

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