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income Essay Topics & Paper Examples

Poverty Destroys Education in America

Poor people do not have weaker work ethics or lower levels of motivation than wealthier people (Iversen & Farber, 1996; Wilson, 1997). Although poor people are often stereotyped as lazy, 83 percent of children from low-income families have at least one employed parent; close to 60 percent have at least one parent who works full-time and year-round (National Center for Children in Poverty, 2004). In fact, the severe shortage of living-wage jobs means that many poor adults must work two, three, or four jobs. According to the Economic Policy Institute (2002), poor working adults spend more hours working each week than their wealthier counterparts Low-income parents hold the same attitudes about education that wealthy parents do (Compton-Lilly, 2003; Lareau &…

Case Studies in Finance Company G & H

Company G deals mostly in selling books in a large retail setting, however they implement a concept that is more community-based. Company H deals in a variety of media, including books, music, and video along with electronics and other varieties of merchandise. Not only does Company H differ in merchandise variety, but it also differs from Company G in that it is internet-based only and is highly interested in further corporate acquisitions—very different from Company G’s “community store concept”. Bruner, Eades, & Schill, 2010, pp. 96-97). Since Company H has a variety of merchandise to sell, along with its interest in acquisitions; it has a significantly higher level of net fixed assets than that of Company G. Acquisitions will always…

Limitation of Using Gdp to Measure Standard of Living

Although national income is a convenient way for measuring the standard of living between countries, it still has its limitations. Firstly, as national income statistics are calculated from millions of different returns to the government, inevitably mistakes are made. For example, returns may be inaccurate or simply not completed. This makes the data incorrect, hence hindering people to analyze the living standard of a country accurately. Secondly, National income does not record the output produced by “hidden economy”. Taxes such as VAT, income tax and National insurance contributions, and government regulations such as health and safety laws, impose a burden on workers and businesses. Some are then tempted to evade taxes and work in the black economy. For instance, in…

Requirements for Reporting Comprehensive Income

FASB topic 220-10-45 outlines what is required for companies to report comprehensive income (CI). To do this, the entity must report CI either in a single continuous financial statement or in two separate but consecutive financial statements. If an entity prefers to report CI in a single continuous financial statement, then the entity must report the components in two sections entitled net income and other comprehensive income (OCI). For both net income, and OCI, a total along with the components that make up the total must be presented. If there are no items that make up OCI, then the entity does not have to have an OCI section. If the entity instead decides to report CI in two separate but…

Poverty and Income Inequality in South Korea

South Korea is counted among the world’s leading economies alongside giants such as United States and Germany (Wiseman & Nishiwaki, 2006). Before the financial crisis hit Asia in 1997, South Korea was among the fastest growing economies of the world with a Gross Domestic Product (GDP) growth rate exceeding 5 percent (Kakwani, Khandker, & Son). Kwack & Lee (2007) report that income inequality had been reduced across the country before the financial crisis. Moreover, between the years 1965 and 2005, income inequality had not significantly increased. All the same, between the years 1998 and 2005, South Korea experienced a rise in income inequality seeing that the Asian financial crisis was massive in its scope (Kwack & Lee, p. 20). Also,…

National Income Statistics and Standard of Living

The national income statistics show that the USA has the highest standard of living; this can be proved by looking at the gross national income of The United States, which is $12,969.6 million, and the gross national income per capita which is $43,740. This figure is over 125 times the income per capita of Tanzania which is $340. This also suggests that the standard of living in Tanzania is very poor. The UK calculated a gross national income of $2,263.7 million, and a gross per capita figure of $37,600, making it the country with the second highest standard of living, behind the USA and ahead of New Zealand, Czech Republic and Russia. China has a higher gross national income than…

Unemployment in Developed and Developing Countries

Introduction Attaining a full employment level, where only a natural level of unemployment exists, is one important macroeconomic objective and they key to this attaining this objective is job creation. This report is a cross sectional econometric analysis of how different factors lead to the creation of jobs in countries with differing Gross National Income per capita. When speaking of job creation, one can expect that the impact and the significant importance of a factor, such as growth rate of the agriculture sector, would vary across developing and developed nations. In nations with high national income the agriculture sector is highly capital intensive and higher growth rates in production are achieved through improvements in crop yield. In such countries we…

SFAS 116 and SFAS 117

SFAS 116 and SFAS 117 were created to improve accountability among not-for-profit and government entities. These improvements should simplify the structure of financial statements by making them understandable to both the financial and non-financial audience. SFAS 116 establishes the accounting standards for contributions made and received. All entities that make or receive contributions are required to report the contributions received at fair market value as revenue in the period in which they were received. Likewise, any contributions made must be recognized at fair market value but as expenses in the period in which they were made. It further requires that not-for-profit organizations classify contributions that increase net assets as either permanently restricted, temporarily restricted, or unrestricted (FASB, 1993). SFAS 117…

Fiscal Federalism in India

India is the largest democracy with federal form of government. The fiscal arrangements in India have evolved in a quasi-federal system to meet the requirements of centralized planning in a mixed economy structure and their sources of revenue for both Centre and State were clearly demarcated with regard to the financial relationship and the responsibilities between them. Our constitution provides residual powers to the Centre and makes clear division of fiscal powers between the Centre and the State Governments. Through various source of revenue to government, the Constitution of India provides for the establishment of a Finance Commission for the purpose of allocation of certain resources of revenue between the Union and the State Governments. The Finance Commission is established…

Green Mountain Coffee Roaster

During the fourth quarter of 2010 Green Mountain Coffee Roasters had some accounting irregularities become known to the public. Green Mountain’s problems all started from how they recognized income, though intercompany inventory and third party vendor. After the SEC inquiry, Green Mountain’s accounting irregularities spanned three fiscal years and three fiscal quarters. Starting with fiscal year 2007 and running through the third fiscal quarter of 2010. In total Green Mountain had five areas of their financial statements in which they did not follow GAAP. The first issue overstated $7.6 million dollars of inventory during the time period, because of an incorrect standard of cost (Dulong, 2010). Next they had a $1.4 million overstated income, because of incorrect accrual amount of…

Income

In a nutshell, this quotation refers to all income gained by either an individual partnership or a corporation that must be reported during income tax filing; this includes also appropriate deductions which are allowed by the internal revenue code. However, in every rule, there could be exceptions; such goes for deductions that are not allowed. There are several expenses that are not deductible such as “Hobby Expenses and Losses” (IRS. ov, 2010), in which a taxpayer should prove that the endeavour has the purpose of “making a profit” before it can be declared that the expense could be deducted; some “Personal deductions unless expressly permitted and with various limitations” (Smith, Harmelink & Hasselback,  2008, p. 28), in which deductions permitted…

Income Inequality and Redistributive Policies

This paper discusses the factors that determine the increase in pay gap between top executives and the average worker. Income inequality has continued to be an economic issue in the United States. The changes in income inequality in the United States have been researched and well documented. The findings reveal an alarming state of affairs concerning income inequality in the country. Most labor economic policies have started to focus on the income inequalities in the country. One of the programs that target this issue is redistribution. For Redistributive Policies to work, it is important to know the factors that contribute to the increase in income gap between the executives and the average workers. Its significance in labor economic policies is…

Domino’s Pizza

Domino’s Pizza experienced a decrease in revenue of 16.3% from year-end 2005 through the year-end 2009. It is true that the economic recession was partly at blame. However, the enterprise suffered from a negative reputation in the marketplace. Domino’s Pizza delivered pizzas that did not quite meet the demands of consumer taste. Their costumers would use social media to protest the ill delivery of pizzas and terrible taste. In addition, consumers were now more educated about their eating habits and had a growing concern with diets that led to obesity. Moreover, these facts combined with competition including companies such as Pizza Hut and Papa John’s, posed a hostile environment for Domino’s Pizza. In order to overcome these pitfalls, Domino’s pizza…

CanGo Final Report Team Blue Consulting

The highlighted red answers are the ones that are correct. The simplest way of navigating through this document is to press find and put down a very unique quote from the question on BSG. For example to find the answer for the question below would be the find the quote “companies can expect to sell”. Make sure it is 100% the same question and answers and you will do very well on this quiz. Some questions have similar wording and the question may be further down the document. Another way to navigate the document is via the answers. I strongly suggest though that before you actually do the quiz, just skim through the questions and familiarize yourself with the answers…

Manage Budgets And Financial Plans

This project, I chose Woolworths Limited Annual Report 2012 to answer the following questions: To whom is this report disseminated and how is this done? “The financial report provides people who are interested in a company – such as shareholders, lenders, analysts and employees – with information about the financial performance and financial position of the company”( A guide to understanding annual reports 2012). It is one means by which directors of the company advise shareholders on how the business has performed during the year. The financial report also provides information to shareholders on how the directors have discharged their responsibilities. In other words, Current shareholders and potential investors remain the primary audiences for annual reports. Employees (who today are…

Patton Fuller Financial Statements

Financial statements hold a great deal of information on them and there are many things to consider when reviewing them. A financial statement can be audited or unaudited which vary in expense information. There are effects of revenue sources to consider and businesses have a different revenue every year. They can either be close in dollar amount or could vary significantly. The financial goal to how much revenue a business wants to make should be set in order to plan and control for expenses that the business must pay for in case of emergencies. Financial statements are very detailed and are well informative of the financial status of a business. Audited Versus Unaudited In the Patton-Fuller revenue and expense statement…

Gemini Electronics

1. What was the business model of Gemini? The business model was to produce TV’s on a just-in-time basis to pass on most of the distribution savings to the consumers. He planned to cater to the big box retailers such as Best Buy and Walmart to name a few, who wanted to cut down their supply chains by sourcing TV’s in North America. By shortening the supply chain you increase reliability making it easier to address uncertainties as well as building lean production to eliminate waste to reduce production time and cost. a. What were the key success factors that determined its past profitability? The key factors that determined its profitability was the reputation for having excellent quality at affordable…

Palm Oil Policy

Summary of the case: Palm Haul Sdn Bhd (PHSB) established in 2002 at Taiping Perak. It was a small and medium sized enterprise in crude palm oil (CPO) transportation business. PHSB was managed by En.H.Rossly and son in law of its founder, Datu S. Najeed. PHSB was facing the same problems likes others transportation companies which is drivers embroiling in oil piracy. The transportation companies will bear the responsibilities of compensation of the refineries if there any hijacking or piracy happened. The involved culprits most probably are the tankers’ driver, deport operators and the transporters. One of the major customer of PHSB, Oilene Refineries Sdn Bhd (Oilene) was complaining to Datuk Najeed on the poor quality of CPO delivered by…

Value techniques

1. (TCO A) Use future or present value techniques to solve the following problems. (Note: You can use tables or a financial calculator. If you use a calculator, please provide the inputs you used to solve the problems.) (5 points each = total 20 points) a. Starting with $20,000, how much will you have in 20 years if you can earn 5% on your money? b. If you inherited $100,000 today and invested all of it in a security that paid an 8% rate of return, how much would you have in 15 years? c. If the average new home costs $200,000 today, what will be the value in 10 years if inflation is 4% per year? d. If you…

Nghe An Tate & Lyle Sugar Company (Viet Nam)

Note: 420 is lowest common multiple of crop life cycle (4,3,10,28) and assume that time value of money is ignored (no discount cash flows to present value). From exhibit 11, Net return from Cane also get highest net present value for period from 1998 to 2015 with nominal discount rate 13.3% per annum and opportunity cost of labor is $1.00/day: NPV Cane +21,599; NPV pineapple +3,865; NPV coffee -9,998; NPV rubber -20,664, NPV combo A -12,777; NPV combo B +2,555, NPV combo C -799 (US$ in thousands). – Other benefits: One of three parts of NATL’s development plan is an outreach program to help local farmers to convert to cane production which means that their sugar cane will have more…

First Investments, Inc.

Basic Industries is a diversified multinational corporation with major shares in various electric related markets. There is stock that has been held since the early 1980s and we have been asked to analyze and evaluate the past 10 years of data to either sell or continue holding the shares. We have also been asked to closely compare years 1993-1994 and not include the strike years 1989-1990. Through my analysis, I found that Basic Industries should hold on to the stocks. This can be backed up with several ratios and analysis for it, like the following: Equity turnover is the highest during 1994, following the trend in increase. If this continues then the company will keep producing more and more revenue…

Net Income is defined as the total income

Net Income is defined as the total income of the company after all the expenses and other costs from their total revenue. The level of Net Income is very important for the managers since it is the one that will be divided into the shareholders of the company. The higher the net income, the greater would be the capital gains that stockholder would receive. There are instances that even though the company has high revenue, its net income still remains low due to the higher level of spending or costs. Answer B Legally based, White’s plan is acceptable since theoretically his strategy complies with the available accounting principles. Only that, he was able to play these principles on his hands…

Income elasticity of demand

Luxury product sales boost in the emerging marketing like China, which has extraordinary growth and strong potential consumers for the development of luxury goods in the China market. With gradually lower and lower increase of revenue in the European countries, Louis Vuitton (abridged as LV in the following sections) commits itself to set up more stores in China. However, LV is faced with the problems of declining profits in China, which urges it to adjust its entry strategy into the China market. In this case, this report will focus on distinguishing the factors that influence LV’s development in China and laying out schemes for LV’s entry into China market by initially examining the internal and external environment for LV; analyzing…

CGA-Tax Assignment

Justina Stein comes to you, a CGA, for some tax advice on claiming $120,000 business investment losses in 2012 and in future years, from the sale of her shares which she believes may qualify as small business corporation (SBC) shares. She has heard that such losses are given special treatment under the Act. Briefly explain to Justina the special treatment given to business investment losses in the year of loss and in future years. Assume that Justina will earn $75,000 in salary in 2012 and has never claimed the lifetime capital gains deduction. Detailed calculations are not necessary. First, qualified business investment losses Business Investment Loss includes capital losses arising from the disposition of shares and debts of a small…

Income inequality

It is the report which is talking about income inequality. It is global income inequality is increasing. Besides that that’s is more information about measurement for the income inequality The relationship between the income inequality and economic growth Technological change and globalisation partly on income inequality, Way to reduce the income inequality, Causes of income inequality, and High income inequality gap-Latin America. Mostly it is all about the income inequality in this assignment is telling about the income inequality. Income inequality Income inequality is about the measurement of people’s household or individual based on their income across the various participants in an economy. It is also known as the gap between the rich and poor, wealth and poverty, the different…

Codification Master Glossary

Question 1 Is the Enterprise a VIE as defined in the Codification Master Glossary? If so, what criteria cause it to be deemed a VIE? Assume that (1) the Enterprise does not qualify for any scope exceptions and (2) the equity investment by the Nominee Shareholders in the Enterprise represents equity investment at risk. The enterprise is a VIE as defined in the codification of the master glossary. From the narrative, nominee equity holders do not absorb the losses of the enterprise and do not benefit from the residual gain the residual gain rather goes to the WFOE. The nominee equity holders though they own 100% of the share cannot run the activities of the enterprise; the activities are run…

Analysis of Comprehensive Annual Financial Report

Abstract Comprehensive Annual Financial Report (CAFR) is a report used by cities, and local governments to provide the public with their financial records each year, while adhering to government accounting standards board (GASB) guidelines. The report presents a comprehensive picture of the reporting entity’s financial condition, it provides how funds are spent and allocated throughout the year. Introduction I will be covering the Carlsbad CAFR for year ended 2011. The Beautiful city of Carlsbad is located along the coast of southern California. Carlsbad is known for its beautiful beaches, and lagoons which cover 1,000 Acres of nature preserves and hiking trails. Its history dates back to 1700, before becoming part of the United States, it was a territory of Spain…

Adolph Coors in the Brewing Industry

1. Coors was very successful through the mid-1970s. How was its value chain configured up to that point? What type of generic competitive advantage did such a value chain confer? (Please focus your analysis on procurement, manufacturing, marketing, and distribution functions). * Procurement * Long-term contracts with farmers * Can recycling for further use * Spring water from Colorado * Grain processing facility that supplied a third of its refined cereal starch * Sourced all its cans from a captive can making facility * Labels and secondary packaging * Above-average vertical integration * Built many of its equipment * Manufacturing * Aged beer for 70 days (natural fermentation vs. additives.) * No pasteurization * One kind of beer * Fastest…

Aqualisa Quartz Case

Aqualisa Quartz In the targeting market, we tend to target plumbers and end users (Middle to high income) because most of the end users are suggested by the plumbers. The others might buy from showrooms. Therefore, we have to target them as well Positioning Statement To middle-high income customers, Aqualisa Quartz is a high premium shower brand which come under mixer shower category that offers quality and latest innovation because Aqualisa Quartz has benefits in water pressure, ease of installation, use and design. HOW 12775 comes ? This number is come from the fact that case study states that unit sold of Quartz is between 30-40 units per day. So we take the mean which is 35 units and times…

Health Care Case Study: Financial Statements

Abstract “An empowered organization is one in which individuals have the knowledge, skill, desire, and opportunity to personally succeed in a way that leads to collective organizational success,” (Covey. 2011). Financial management within a health care organization is crucial to the success and stability of the organization. In this summary financial information on Patten Fuller Hospital will be revealed. Specifically, the differences between audited and unaudited statements and reporting on the hospital’s ratios will be included. Information related to the relationship on revenue sources and expenses will include how the hospital revenues and expenses are grouped for planning and control. Audited and Unaudited Differences During the years of 2008 and 2009 the Patton-Fuller Community Hospital’s balance sheet had some differences…