Substantial quantity of research has been conducted in the area of parental role in their children academic achievement and adjustment. Parental involvement in their children educational activities at early stages involves both creating an enabling environment at home that foster academic attainment and direct involvement in literal skills (Gillian and Bernadette 2006). This is in a view that pupils have two categories of teachers: parents and teachers at school.
Generally, research show that there is an increased parental involvement in their children’s education at early stages of about 92 percent, with women showing more commitment as compared to men (Maxwell and Johnson 2002). However, the outstanding question remains to be how parental involvement is done best to facilitate children achievement. In response to this question, Moore and Wade (2000) states that parents as prime educators of a child have a significant influence on the children’s learning in schools and beyond schooling to social, economical mindset and cognitive development.
The parent involvement at school level includes assisting children during lunch times and providing necessary study materials for their children such as chats. While at home parents get involved in their children’s educational activities by teaching their children nursery rhymes or/and songs, reading together, narrating poems or stories together and assist with assignments or homework. This learning activities to a great extend do help the children attain literacy skills, discipline due to association and modeling from parents, socialization benefits and the boost in their cognitive abilities especially memory (Moore and Wade 2000).
The body of research available indicates that parental involvement in their children learning activities influences their learning positively. The areas that are greatly affected positively are outstanding: overall academic performance, cognitive competence; fewer indiscipline problems due to low delinquency level and discipline maintenance by parents; problem solving-skills resulting from parental guidance in problem solving skills; and fewer cases of absenteeism due to greater school enjoyment (Gillian and Bernadette 2006). Research conducted by Sammons et al.
(2001), found out that the learning activities that the parents engage in with their children at home have a positive impact on the children’s social and cognitive or intellectual development as a result of child-parent attachment (Sammons et al. 2001). Therefore, this finding implies that what parents do to their children in terms of their learning whether formal or informal is better than what they are to their children. Hence, it is inherent that parental income, educational background or parental occupation does not precede their contribution to their children intellectual development.
Similarly, research on children’s literal skills in relation to their parent involvement in their education activities overwhelmingly supports positive influence (Porsche, Jordan and Snow 2000). Child-parent involvement in reading activities at home has impact on two dimensions about language aspects. First, the impact on learning activities usually includes attainment of language expressive skills, achievement in reading tasks and language comprehension (Moore and Wade 2000).
Second dimension, involves cultivation and facilitation of the child’s attentiveness in reading lessons or sessions, reading interest and a positive attitude for reading (Gillian and Bernadette 2006). These two achievable dimensions through child-parent involvement create an incentive for reading skills and the necessary mechanisms that help support the incentive for reading. Parental involvement in their children academic activities is linked to the child’s benefit in terms of formal literacy learning.
The leading child-parent academic activity like reading is an important determinant of child’s emergent literacy and language attainment. Moreover, the children introduced to books by their parents early ages they usually have a good head start and an overall advantage over their counterparts in primary (Porsche, Jordan and Snow 2000; Moore and Wade 2000). More empathically, the research shows the more the children and their parent are involved in literacy skills like speaking, reading, writing of language and numbers, and listening; the more long-lasting effect of retention to the child.
Furthermore, parental influence is strongest in the reading subject to young pupils as compared to other subject as children demonstrate they can imitate their parent’s voices and pronunciations while reading (Moore and Wade 2000). Therefore, it should be seen that this strong reading influence is important in the sense that reading skill is basic to all subjects successful understanding and learning. Additionally, the parental influence demonstrated through their interest in their children’s education has a positive influence for teenage age of 16 (Gillian and Bernadette 2006). Findings by Sammons et al.
(2001) reveals that parental involvement in their children’s learning environment and support go beyond educational and literacy attainment. This finding demonstrate that children that and good intimacy, attachment and interaction with their parents exhibited greater emotional and social development especially in a nuclear family set up. Most of the areas of emotional and social development are life satisfaction, self-control and self-direction, good mental health, resilience to stress, stable and positive relationships resulting to stable marriages and social adjustment is excellent.
Conclusion In conclusion, this paper indicate that parents involvement in their children’s education activities has positive influence on the children’s educational outcomes; the view widely supported by research. The major dimension that child-parent interaction in educational activities are: academic performance, cognitive competence, fewer indiscipline problems, problem solving-skills, and fewer cases of absenteeism.
Moreover, the strongest and important influence is the long-lasting reading skill that is crucial excelling in other subject areas. Therefore, parents ought to encourage continuing their involvement in their children’s learning. Bibliography Gillian P, Bernadette D 2006, Contemporary Issues in the Early Year, SAGE, London Maxwell S. & Johnson, L 2002, “A five-year longitudinal study on Parental involvement in the development of children’s reading skill” Child Development, 74, (12), 442-456.
Moore, M & Wade, B 2000, A sure start with books, Early Years, 21, 33-48 Porsche, MV, Jordan, GE, & Snow, CE 2000, “The effect of a family literacy project on kindergarten students’ early literacy skills: Project EASE”, Reading Research Quarterly, 36, 521-531. Sammons, P et al. 2001, EPPE project on Cognitive, Behavioral and Social development at 3 to 4 years in relation to family background. The effective provision of pre-school education, The Institute of Education, London