This paper deals with the implications due to the development in Northern Canada. The effects of these developments in the environment and people are included in this paper. Also, the groups that are established to eliminate or rather reduce the pollutants emitted in the atmosphere due to these developments and their goals are stated in this paper. Northern Canada is the northernmost region of Canada which can also be called as far north that may refer to the Canadian Arctic’ the portion of Canada which is near to the north of Arctic circle.
Canada is known as the largest supplier of crude oil and refined products to the United States. Different explorations are conducted to find oil wells and processed into useful products. Other industrial activities are done to add up into the economic development being raised in Northern Canada. These industrial activities are mineral extraction and processing, forest products and hydroelectric generation. Hence, these developments are the major factors that contribute in destructing the rich land of northern Canada.
According to an article these industrial development continued to contaminate the soil in Canada. This contamination leads to denude the land and places that are ecologically significant in Canada’s flora and fauna. Moreover, different test methods are conducted to evaluate this contaminated soils thus, this test methods shows the toxicity of the land. Oil refineries play the foremost destruction of ecosystem. Refining oil leaves a bitumen deposit in soils. Bitumen deposits include extra heavy oils or tar sands and oil sands. Large amount of these sands are can be in Canada.
These are dense and viscous form of petroleum which is naturally occurring mixtures of sand and clay. Most of these sands are can be seen in the arctic region of Canada. Accordingly, like all non-renewable resource developments projects, operations related to this mining event have a great impact in polluting the environment. The water used in the separation during the separation process is not dispose properly nor recycled by the processing plant. A large volume of water used in producing synthetic crude oil ends up in ponds.
These ponds are connected to Athabasca River which is one of the largest rivers in Canada. Consequently, aside from water pollution, air is also abused in processing crude oil. Most of the petroleum is being burned this action emit carbon dioxide as well as other air pollutant. Of course the huge amount present in the air is carbon dioxide. Aside from this the other pollutants specified are carbon monoxide, nitrogen oxide, ozone, particulate matter and sulphur dioxide. These gases are highly toxic in humans it is a major treat in our health based on different studies as well as in our environment.
These are the main cause of global warming that we are experiencing right now. Also, hydrogen sulfide and mercury are found to be present in burning fossil fuels and refining oil. Hydrogen sulfide is a gas that naturally occurs in crude petroleum and natural gas. As for mercury, it is associated in burning fuels. Furthermore, lands are also not safe in refining oil because oil sands are used to produce barrels of oil. This oil sands are mined which means that to be able to mine these sands clearing of trees is must be done.
Removing of topsoil, sand, clay and gravel that is present in top of the oil must also be done. Climate change bound to be the major effect of these developments. As I have said earlier gases with high toxicity are emitted in land, water and air. These gases are named to be as green house gases which are huge in Canada, thus, making the environment clearly denuded. Effects of these developments vary from agricultural, forestry, infrastructure, industry, transportation, water resources, marine ecosystem and terrestrial ecosystem.
Since soils are widely affected a lot of aspects with regards to soil greatly suffered. Soils and climate conditions in the North of Canada are now unfavorable to agricultural production. Somehow, hope has its chance for in some areas in Yukon have been seen that there is a moderate capability in terms of agriculture but this takes a long term of cultivation and longer growing seasons may increased the risk of greenhouse production. Moreover, this production is limited due to soil condition. Forestry is also greatly affected. This deals with the hunting and gathering of people.
Although forestry is a small contributor in their economy, it plays an important role for them because there is an interest in the growth of this part. Due to extreme heat that we are all experiencing forest fires particularly in Yukon has been emerging in the past few years. This event is expected to continue if developments do not prioritize our environment also. Excessive heat also triggers the stability of transportation and infrastructures in Northern Canada. In some areas, permafrost melt increase the risk of landslides that can cause unwanted damages.
It also threatens the water supply, foundation of old buildings and waste disposal infrastructure. Since it is in the Arctic region, it was quite icy there therefore permafrost melting may cause the buckling of pipes and storage tanks that are used in water and sewage. Roads also rely on the ground stability. Transportation in most areas in north relies in this stability. Warmer winters made transporting goods to the communities more difficult because ice roads are freezing later then suddenly melts earlier during spring. Accordingly, this problem will increase if the temperature continues to rise.
Economic Impacts are also inter related in climate change, this phenomena has a deep impact in the commercial and industrial activity of Northern Canada. This unfavorable change in weather could require costly upgrades and redesigning of dams structures in mining industry. This can also hinder explorations of oil well which is somehow good and bad. Good, because it means that there will be a reduction in greenhouse gases emitted in the atmosphere. It is bad, because as I stated a while ago oil exploration and refineries is the major factor in economic abundance of Canada.
In addition, water resources are also significant in North Canada. The hydrology of North Canada is at risk because an increase in temperature will also increased the possibility of melting of snow and ice. Peat lands may dry out because of increased evaporation and plant transpiration. This climate change may affect hydropower generation in the Yukon. Effect is uncertain; increasing amount of water runoff may boost the capacity of hydropower, while possible heavy storms may reduce its potential. Also, due to the problems arise together with the developments.
Thickness of sea ice is also in line with the devastating threats that these developments brought up. Du to climate change extent and thickness of sea ice are expected to reduce in many areas of the arctic. The victims here are those animals that are dependent or those who are living in these areas. These animals include polar bears, walrus and seals. However it may be an advantage as it becomes open water. But it was very unfortunate to those animals. Thus, this is important to all that are included in marine ecosystem because their entire food chain relies on the abundance of plankton and other microorganisms.
If the thickness and distribution of sea ice are affected this will be a vast tragedy in the whole marine food chain. Terrestrial ecosystems are also not safe in these changes. Species composition varies as the temperature continues to warm or suddenly change. Due to this extreme heat, parasites and other insect bone disease continue to promulgate in the land infecting the animals that leads to declination of animal population. In addition, since northern Canada is near arctic region warming the region is not a good sign for those animals that are herbivores.
Most of the plants are suddenly dying due unwanted climate change, so an herbivore animal will look for their food in other place making them move in other places where they can get their food. As a result those carnivorous animals follow them because they are their prey. This is not a good sign for a country because they will not able to preserve their wildlife. For birds, it is somehow a good sign for them because they can decrease their chick mortality thus; this may decrease the foraging ability of migrating birds.
I suppose these changes in marine ecosystem, terrestrial ecosystem, etc mostly affect the traditional lifestyle of Canadians especially those who are in north. It greatly affects their hunting and gathering practices and threatened their long existing traditions. Uneven increased of temperature makes the animals leave and find a more comfortable habitat. Numbers of these animals in particular fishes and plants species greatly affect those people that rely on these; the indigenous people. These probably leads to their traditional way of living such as hunting and harvesting moreover, those traditional foods they eat or sell might be lost now.
These changes however are being taken care of different agencies of the government of Northern Canada and other civilian groups that are concern in preserving our environment. Based on an article, several test methods are used to monitor the toxicity of soil in North Canada. They examine the soils to assess or detect the toxic wastes present in that soil. And they identify them individually. These several tests are done for them to develop a better risk assessment plan to punish those polluters and to maintain the rich resources of Canada.
Industry sectors are also mandated to provide effective remediation methods at contaminated areas and to monitor every progress that complies with environmental policies. Arctic Council Action Plan to Eliminate Pollution of the Arctic (ACAP) and Arctic Monitoring and Assessment Programme (AMAP) are two of the leading bodies that protect the environment. Their goal is to reduce emissions of pollutants present in the environment and they encourage Arctic governments to make preventive actions that relates in reducing pollutants that are released by processing plants.
Conservation of Arctic Flora and Fauna is also one the concern of the citizens of northern Canada. This deals with the conservation of Arctic ecosystems and habitats. Its goal is to maintain and enhanced the integrity of ecosystem in the Arctic and to avoid the degradation and fragmentation of habitats. The scope of their goal is not just only the flora and fauna of the Arctic thus, they include the physical environment and the socio economic environment of those people who live there. Another is the Emergency Prevention, Preparedness and Response (EPPR) Group.
This group deals with as they were called, prevention, preparedness and response to environmental emergencies in the Arctic caused by human activities. And the last group would be Protection of Arctic Marine Environment (PAME). This group deals with the protection of Arctic marine environment. It is directed to respond to emerging knowledge of the Arctic marine environment, determine the adequacy of regional or international commitments and promote their implementation and facilitate program and cooperation and support communication, reporting and outreach both within and outside the Arctic Council.
Somehow this leads to only one thing, government and industry sector are required to create a strong array in creating methods that appraise the risks that could lead to massive destruction of our environment. Reference Biological Methods Section and S&T Liaison Protecting. Canada’s Boreal Forests and Northern Ecosystems: Developing Biological Methods to Assess and Preserve Canada’s Soil Environments of the North. Retrieved: July 5, 2010. From: http://www. ec. gc. ca/scitech/default. asp? lang=En&n=4B40916E- 1&xsl=privateArticles2,viewfull&po=3AB28EB3