A manager is a person who is responsible for being in charge of all or a piece of a company or organization. A manager is very important and can make or break a company. According to DuBrin (2008), desirable personal characteristics make a manager somebody that the employees can look up to, and sense content following them. Some of those characteristics are motivation, integrity, optimism, dependability, and confidence. Some level of business insight is essential for a manager. Being knowledgeable about fundamental business values and practices can be helpful, such as having knowledge of the company, being organized, money management, and legal implications. It is necessary for a good manager to be able to communicate thoroughly and effectively.
Managers should make sure to develop the skill to converse as part of his or her efforts. Some characteristics that should be acquired to be an affective conversationalist and execute management duties are verbal and written communication, constructive feedback, active listening, and organized presentations. Managers should also know how to build professional relationships with employees with qualities such as respect, values, collaboration, and being a team player. The contents of this paper will define the roles and responsibilities of a manager when change is implemented and how he or she should handle the change using assessment, planning, implementation, and evaluation.
Roles and responsibilities in implementing change
Change is very popular in any company or organization. Change management deals with how changes to the company or department are managed so they don’t degrade performance. Once an organization commit to planned change, the manager needs to construct a reasonable step by step approach in order to achieve the goals of change. According to Gilley (2001), a planned change entails managers to follow a seven step method for successful implementations. The first step is to recognize that change is needed. The change may be due to either internal or external forces but it needs to be addressed. The second step is to develop the goals of the change. It is required to establish the reason why the change is necessary then identify the needed changes in terms of products, technology, structure, and culture.
The third step is to select a change agent, who will be the person that takes control and is responsible to execute the planned change. The change agent must be attentive to things that need revamping, open to new and good ideas, and supportive of the implementation of those ideas into actual practice. The fourth step is to diagnose the current climate, in which the change agent sets about assembling data about the climate of the company in order to assist employees in preparation for change. Preparing employees for change involves direct and influential feedback about the negatives of the current situation. The fifth step is to choose an implementation technique.
Managers can make themselves more receptive to pressures for change by using networks of organizations with diverse perceptions and views, being exposed to new ideas by visiting other organizations, and using outside standards of performance, such as competitor’s development. The sixth step is to develop a plan that determines the when, where, and how of the change. The seventh and last step is to finally implement the plan. After all the questions have been answered, the plan should be put into operation. Once a change has started, initial excitement can scatter in the facade of everyday issues. Managers can retain the momentum for change by providing resources, developing new capabilities and skills, emphasizing new behaviors, and building a support system for those initiating the change.
Handling staff resistance to change
During a change, employees often act negatively towards that change. The staff is usually resistant to change for a number of different reasons such as fear of loss of job, fear of the unknown, loss of control, lack of competence, poor timing, peer pressure, lack of trust and support, and many more reasons. There are a number of ways managers can help employees overcome resistance to change. According to Sharma (2006), one proven technique is education and communication. Employees can be educated about the nature of the change and the reason behind it before it takes place using reports, memos, and presentations. Another important factor of overcoming resistance is inviting employee contribution and involvement in the plan and implementation stages of the change.
Another possible approach is through facilitation and support. Managers should be sure to supply employees with the resources they need to make the change, be supportive of their efforts, listen to their problem, and understand that performance level may go down initially. Some companies deal with resistance to change through compromise and rewards by offering employees incentives to guarantee their cooperation. Other companies choose to manipulate, such as giving a resistance leader an important position in the change process. Whatever approaches that a manager uses to handle employees resistance to change, it is important that they acknowledge the resistance and do something about it.