1. Understand person-centred approaches for care and support.
1.1 Define person-centred values.
The underlying purpose of “Person-centred values” is to ensure that the individual needing care is placed at the very centre of the decision making process about their life, the services and support they want and need.
1.2 Explain why it is important to work in a way that embeds person-centred values. Under this strict system of person-centred values, the person is always placed at the very centre of the planning of the care programme required, in that they will always be consulted and that their views will always come first. Therefore the plan is tailor-made to that particular person, and it should include all aspects of care, from the Social and Health Services, from that individual’s family and from the voluntary sector. This is the current policy and it applies to those people with learning disabilities, mental health problems, and physical disabilities, to older people who need support, and to young people making their transition to adulthood.
To place the person at the centre, certain values must be upheld; Individuality – everyone’s differences must be recognised and respected. Choice – for individuals to be able to make own choices and be in control of own life. Privacy – information and activities must be kept confidential. Independence – empowering individuals to do activities for themselves and Dignity – to be treated in a respectful way. It is vital for the social care worker to work using these precise methods to establish the needs and wishes of the individual. This will also mean that individuals will feel empowered and in control of their lives, be more confident about making decisions and will feel valued and respected.
1.3 Explain why risk-taking can be part of a person centred approach. The person-centred approach to risk includes making an assessment with the people involved in the plan such as the individual, their relatives and other professionals. Risk taking is part of a person-centred approach as this empowers individuals to have choices about what they want to do in their lives as well as to be part of their community. Not allowing individuals to take risks can have a negative impact on an individual’s life to not live it as they wish.
1.4 Explain how using an individuals care plan contributes to working in a person-centred way. To be person-centred the person must always be at the centre of their care plan. This means that individuals must always be consulted and their views must always come first. Therefore, no two care plans are alike because each individual is different from another. Each individual should be involved at every stage of their care plan, from deciding who to involve, how to meet the individual’s needs, the support required and how to feedback on how the care plan is working.
2. Be able to work in a person-centred way.
2.1 Find out the history, preferences, wishes and needs of the individual.
2.2 Apply person-centred values in day to day work, taking into account the history, preferences, wishes and needs of the individual. The learner went into the office to read the care plan, risk assessment and the communication preferences for the service user they were going to support. They closed the office door behind them and also checked the information about the signs the service user uses with their senior in private in the office, who showed them the current signs and their meanings for this service user as well as the signs they will tend to use whilst being hoisted. They then explained that they could not verbally communicate and that it was important that their permission was given before they started to hoist. Everyone has different ways of communicating, so it is important that they observe the service user and understands the signals they give. The learner knelt down beside the service user, gently spoke to him, maintaining eye contact with him and explained that they were going to hoist him into his wheelchair and take him to his bedroom.
Asked him this in his room, the door was closed and the TV was switched off. The learner took their time, showing excellent communication skills, and although the client could not verbally agree he indicated that he was ready and willing by nodding his head. The learner nodded her head in agreement and observed the service user do the same again in confirmation. M said that if there was a conflict she would have asked her manager to assist. She added the important thing was for her client not to be put at any risk, and for his independence to be maintained by encouragement and to conform to the care plan, a conflict could put the client at risk… The immediate area was cleared of trailing covers to give adequate space. M followed the care plan and made sure the chair and hoist were in the correct position, with the brakes on, then using the correct method the sling was put into place and a cushion was placed under the service user’s feet to stop any discomfort.
M spoke to him the whole time, reassuring and confirming he was comfortable and that he understood what was happening. She used a mix of verbal communication including clear and short words, spoken in a gentle and calm tone and signing which the service user was comfortable with…M observed his signs checking that he was in agreement with everything that was happening, he confirmed he was. M recorded in the care plan in a confidential manner at the end of the routine, in the office in private, the time and when the client was due to be next moved and detailed the support provided as well as the communication methods used with the service user The next thing M talked through with her manager was a person centred planning meeting that M had attended to review a service user that had been coming downstairs at night and eating other service users’ food.
They agreed that the meeting had been very worthwhile as the care manager had been present and they agreed the service user had been frustrated due to his communication problems and so it was difficult for staff to know what he wanted. Now that this service user was purchasing his own food and had consented to this and was eating this in his room this had made a lot of difference said M. They talked about how a meeting with the psychiatrist was refused by the service user, but how staff feel that his behaviour is getting a lot better and all the team will continue to monitor this. M said that she had been working with this service user this morning and that he had been shouting but how she now feels that by giving him more time and talking through what he would like to do daily has helped him to control his behaviour…’
3. Be able to establish consent when providing care or support.
3.1 Explain the importance of establishing consent when providing care or support. It is always very important to establish the consent of the individual when providing any care or support programme or procedure. This is essential so as to include that individual with any decision-making, in order to ensure that they do not feel left out or ignored. In this way they can understand and agree to that element of their care or support. I would discuss the problem that consent cannot be established, with the supervisor or manager of the home, and, if necessary, the individual’s doctor and advocate. I would also make a record of this, which I would sign and date.
3.2 Establish consent for an activity or action.
3.3 Explain what steps to take if consent cannot readily be established.
4. Be able to encourage active participation.
4.1 Describe how active participation benefits an individual. Active participation benefits the individual because that person is always made to feel that they are continually important, and that things are done for their benefit, with their consent. This ensures a positive approach for the individual that makes them an active part of how they choose to live and puts them first as the focus.
4.2 Identify possible barriers to active participation.
Barriers can take several forms; the emotions, the disabilities, and the attitudes of the individual concerned. Any or all of which can deter active participation by that individual in any activity or action. Similarly barriers exist if social care workers’ attitudes and approaches do not value active participation, strict routines and lack of training on using the active participation approach can also be barriers.
4.3 Demonstrate ways to reduce the barriers and encourage active participation. Observed in shown work.
5. Be able to support the individual’s right to make choices.
5.1 Support an individual to make informed choices.
5.2 Use agreed risk-assessment processes to support the right to make choices.
5.3 Explain why a worker’s personal views should not influence an individual’s choices. The care worker’s personal views may simply rule things out for the individual being cared for, because the worker might take a subjective position rather than looking to find creative solutions for that individual. Such a stance could prevent the individual from making informed choices about their care. Therefore, personal views should never influence the choices of any individual this also goes against their rights and can make an individual feel pressurised to agree.
5.4 Describe how to support an individual to question or challenge decisions concerning them that are made by others. When others make decisions for the individual, the care worker should talk to the individual to ask that person whether they understand what has been decided for them. Once the individual understands those decisions, they should be encouraged to state whether they agree with them. If not, then that individual should be enabled to question and challenge them either themselves, through the social care worker or an advocate.
6. Be able to promote individuals wellbeing.
6.1 Explain how individual identify and self-esteem are linked with wellbeing. Maintaining an individual’s identity is done by always recognising that person as a human being, not a number. Identity is who the person is. Ensuring that the individual is important and that their views and concerns are always dealt with in a positive and caring manner will always ensure that person is valued and has a high self-esteem. All this will contribute to their sense of well-being.
6.2 Describe attitudes and approaches that are likely to promote an individual’s wellbeing. By always ensuring that the individual is treated in a professional, kind, caring and courteous way, their sense of well-being is always assured. Care workers can also make sure that they use a number of different approaches; empowering approaches that enable the individual to take control, a positive approach that encourages the individual to feel good. Working in a trusting and professional way enables a good relationship to build between the care worker and individual and promoting a sense of well-being.
6.3 Support an individual in a way that promotes a sense of identity and self-esteem.
6.4 Demonstrate ways to contribute to an environment that promotes well-being. Observed in shown work.