The purpose of this study was to investigate the impact of motivation on job satisfaction (dissatisfaction) of journalistic employees employed by the national public broadcaster. The idea was to profile factors causing high motivation and job satisfaction and also to profile those factors that contribute low motivation and dissatisfaction at work.
The rationale for the study was simply an observation that some employees seem better adjusted and happy at work and are able to cope well with the demands of the working environment while others are not. Another observation is that management seem not to be aware of what motivates their subordinates and to strategically utilize those motivational tools to maintain high levels of job satisfaction (or at least low levels of job dissatisfaction), high productivity and morale.
The target sample was all journalistic staff working in the television and radio news rooms of the national public broadcaster in South Africa. The profile of the respondents included a variety of ages, gender, races, educational backgrounds, different work locations, different marital statuses and managers and non-managers. Data was collected using a questionnaire that was randomly distributed at Head Office in Auckland Park and to all the nine regional offices of the SABC.
The major findings of this investigation was that three motivational factors, namely achievement, recognition and work itself cause 88% job satisfaction; while hygiene factors cause 12% job satisfaction. At the same time the research also found that three hygiene factors, namely supervision, company policy and administration and interpersonal relations with supervisors cause 60% job dissatisfaction; while motivational factors, namely achievement and recognition cause 40% job dissatisfaction.
These results reflect the work attitudes of employees at the time of this research.
The study illustrates that when employees are happy and satisfied in their jobs, their level of motivation is high and they perform at peak all the time. On the other hand, when employees are unhappy and dissatisfied at work, their level of motivation is low and they don’t perform at peak level.
The study recommends strategies of how management can utilize achievement, recognition and work itself as a tool to keep employees motivated and satisfied in their jobs. It also recommends ways by which management can eliminate low motivation and job dissatisfaction amongst employees by improving management skills, knowledge and competencies of managers, building relations between managers and subordinates and also improving the quality of internal communication with employees especially on policy and administrative matters.
Lawler (1973) in Dipboye, Smith and Howell (2000) incorporated the concepts of attained versus desired needs in his model of facet satisfaction. This model is an extension of the Porter-Lawler (1968) of motivation explained above. It is a facet satisfaction model because satisfaction with various components or facets of a job, such as supervision, pay, or the work itself, is considered. Lawler’s model specifies that workers compare what their jobs should provide in terms of job facets, such as promotions and pay, to what they currently receive from their jobs.
However, simple need comparison theory is extended by also weighing the influence of certain worker characteristics (such as skills, training, and age) and job characteristics (such as degree of responsibility and difficulty). In addition, the model draws concepts from the equity theory of motivation by assuming that workers ultimately determine their job satisfaction by comparing their relevant job inputs and outputs to referent (comparison) others (Dipboye, Smith and Howell, 2000:149-150). Adapted: Figure 2.2