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Immortals of Greek mythology Essay

The Greeks created images of their deities for many purposes. A temple would house the statue of a god or goddess, or multiple deities, and might be decorated with relief scenes depicting myths. Divine images were common on coins. Drinking cups and other vessels were painted with scenes from Greek myths. Gods & Goddesses Aphrodite (???????? , Aphrodite) Goddess of love, beauty, desire, and pleasure. Although married to Hephaestus she had many lovers, most notably Ares, Adonis, and Anchises. She was depicted as a beautiful woman and of all the goddesses most likely to appear nude or seminude.

Poets praise the radiance of her smile and her laughter. Her symbols include roses and other flowers, the scallop shell, and myrtle wreath. Her sacred animals are doves and sparrows. Her Roman counterpart was Venus. Apollo (??????? , Apollon) God of light, music, arts, knowledge, healing, plague and darkness, prophecy, poetry, purity, athletism, manly beauty, and enlightenment. He is the son of Zeus and Leto, and the twin brother of Artemis. As brother and sister, they were identified with the sun and moon; both use a bow and arrow. In the earliest myths, Apollo contends with his half-brother Hermes.

In sculpture, Apollo was depicted as a very handsome, beardless young man with long hair and an ideal physique. As the embodiment of perfectionism, he could be cruel and destructive, and his love affairs were rarely happy. His attributes include the laurel wreath and lyre. He often appears in the company of the Muses. Animals sacred to Apollo include roe deer, swans, cicadas, hawks, ravens, crows, foxes, mice, and snakes. Ares (???? , Ares) God of war, bloodshed, and violence. The son of Zeus and Hera, he was depicted as a beardless youth, either nude with a helmet and spear or sword, or as an armed warrior.

Homer portrays him as moody and unreliable, and he generally represents the chaos of war in contrast to Athena, a goddess of military strategy and skill. Ares’ sacred animals are the vulture, venomous snakes, dogs, and boars. His Roman counterpart Mars by contrast was regarded as the dignified ancestor of the Roman people. Artemis (??????? , Artemis) Virgin goddess of the hunt, wilderness, animals, young girls, childbirth and plague. In later times she became associated with the moon. She is the daughter of Zeus and Leto, and twin sister of Apollo.

In art she was often depicted as a young woman dressed in a short knee-length chiton and equipped with a hunting bow and a quiver of arrows. Her attributes include hunting spears, animal pelts, deer and other wild animals. Her sacred animals are deer, bears, and wild boars. Diana was her Roman counterpart. Athena (????? , Athena) Goddess of intelligence and skill, warfare, battle strategy, handicrafts, and wisdom. According to most traditions, she was born from Zeus’s head fully formed and armored. She was depicted crowned with a crested helm, armed with shield and a spear, and wearing the aegis over a long dress.

Poets describe her as “grey-eyed” or having especially bright, keen eyes. She was a special patron of heroes such as Odysseus. Her symbol is the olive tree. She is commonly shown accompanied by her sacred animal, the owl. The Romans identified her with Minerva. Demeter (??????? , Demeter) Goddess of grain, agriculture and the harvest, growth and nourishment. Demeter is a daughter of Cronus and Rhea and sister of Zeus, by whom she bore Persephone. She was one of the main deities of the Eleusinian Mysteries, in which her power over the life cycle of plants symbolized the passage of the human soul through its life course and into the afterlife.

She was depicted as a mature woman, often crowned and holding sheafs of wheat and a torch. Her symbols are the cornucopia, wheat-ears, the winged serpent, and the lotus staff. Her sacred animals are pigs and snakes. Ceres was her Roman counterpart. Dionysus (???????? , Dionysos) God of wine, parties and festivals, madness, chaos, drunkenness, drugs, and ecstasy. He was depicted in art as either an older bearded god or a pretty effeminate, long-haired youth. His attributes include the thyrsus (a pinecone-tipped staff), drinking cup, grape vine, and a crown of ivy.

He is often in the company of his thiasos, a posse of attendants including satyrs, maenads, and his old tutor Silenus. The consort of Dionysus was Ariadne. Animals sacred to him include dolphins, serpents, tigers, and donkeys. A later addition to the Olympians, in some accounts he replaced Hestia. Bacchus was another name for him in Greek, and came into common usage among the Romans. Hades (???? , Hades) or Pluto (??????? , Plouton) King of the underworld and the dead, and god of the earth’s hidden wealth, both agricultural produce and precious metals. His consort is Persephone.

His attributes are the drinking horn or cornucopia, key, sceptre, and the three-headed dog Cerberus. The screech owl was sacred to him. He was one of three sons of Cronus and Rhea, and thus sovereign over one of the three realms of the universe, the underworld. As a chthonic god, however, his place among the Olympians is ambiguous. In the mystery religions and Athenian literature, Pluto (Plouton, “the Rich”) was his preferred name, with Hades more common for the underworld as a place. The Romans translated Plouton as Dis Pater (“the Rich Father”) or Pluto. Hephaestus (???????? , H? phaistos)

Crippled god of fire, metalworking, and crafts. The son of Hera by parthenogenesis, he is the smith of the gods and the husband of the adulterous Aphrodite. He was usually depicted as a bearded man with hammer, tongs and anvil—the tools of a smith—and sometimes riding a donkey. His sacred animals are the donkey, the guard dog and the crane. Among his creations was the armor of Achilles. Hephaestus used the fire of the forge as a creative force, but his Roman counterpart Volcanus (Vulcan) was feared for his destructive potential and associated with the volcanic power of the earth. Hera (??? , H? ra)

Queen of the heavens and goddess of marriage, women, childbirth, heirs, kings, and empires. She is the wife of Zeus and daughter of Cronus and Rhea. She was usually depicted as a regal woman in the prime of her life, wearing a diadem and veil and holding a lotus-tipped staff. Although she was the goddess of marriage, Zeus’s many infidelities drive her to jealousy and vengefulness. Her sacred animals are the heifer, the peacock, and the cuckoo. At Rome she was known as Juno. Hermes (????? , Hermes) God of boundaries, travel, communication, trade, thievery, trickery, language, writing, diplomacy, athletics, and animal husbandry.

The son of Zeus and Maia, Hermes is the messenger of the gods, and a psychopomp who leads the souls of the dead into the afterlife. He was depicted either as a handsome and athletic beardless youth, or as an older bearded man. His attributes include the herald’s wand or caduceus, winged sandals, and a traveler’s cap. His sacred animals are the tortoise, the ram, and the hawk. The Roman Mercury was more closely identified with trade and commerce. Hestia (????? , Hestia) Virgin goddess of the hearth, home and chastity. She is a daughter of Rhea and Cronus and sister of Zeus.

Not often identifiable in Greek art, she appeared as a modestly veiled woman. Her symbols are the hearth and kettle. In some accounts, she gave up her seat as one of the Twelve Olympians in favor of Dionysus, and she plays little role in Greek myths. Her counterpart Vesta, however, was a major deity of the Roman state. Poseidon (???????? , Poseidon) God of the sea, rivers, floods, droughts, earthquakes, and the creator of horses; known as the “Earth Shaker”. He is a son of Cronus and Rhea and brother to Zeus and Hades. He rules one of the three realms of the universe as king of the sea and the waters.

In classical artwork, he was depicted as a mature man of sturdy build with an often luxuriant beard, and holding a trident. The horse and the dolphin are sacred to him. His wedding with Amphitrite is often presented as a triumphal procession. His Roman counterpart was Neptune. Zeus (???? , Zeus) King of the gods, the ruler of Mount Olympus and the god of the sky, weather, thunder, lightning, law, order, and fate. He is the youngest son of Cronus and Rhea. He overthrew Cronus and gained the sovereignty of heaven for himself. In artwork, he was depicted as a regal, mature man with a sturdy figure and dark beard.

His usual attributes are the royal scepter and the lightning bolt, and his sacred animals are the eagle and the bull. His counterpart Jupiter, also known as Jove, was the supreme deity of the Romans. Primordial deities Ancient Greek name English name Description ????? (Aith? r) Aether The god of the upper air and light. ?????? (Ananke) Ananke The goddess of inevitability, compulsion, and necessity. ???? (Chaos) Chaos The nothingness from which all else sprang. ?????? (Chronos) Chronos The god of time. Not to be confused with the Titan Cronus, the father of Zeus. ?????? (Erebos) Erebos or Erebus.

The god of darkness and shadow. ???? (Eros) Eros The god of love and attraction. ???? (Gaia) Gaia or Gaea or Ge Personification of the Earth (Mother Earth); mother of the Titans. ????? (Hemera) Hemera Goddess of daylight. ????? (“Hypnos”) Hypnos God of Sleep. N???? (Ne? soi) The Nesoi The goddesses of the islands and sea. ??? (Nyx) Nyx or Night The goddess of night. ??????? (Ouranos) Uranus The god of the heavens (Father Sky); father of the Titans. ????? (Ourea) The Ourea The gods of mountains. ????? (Phanes) Phanes The god of procreation in the Orphic tradition. ?????? (Pontos) Pontus.

The god of the sea, father of the fish and other sea creatures. ???????? (Tartaros) Tartarus The god of the deepest, darkest part of the underworld, the Tartarean pit (which is also referred to as Tartarus itself). ??????? (Thalassa) Thalassa Spirit of the sea and consort of Pontos. ??????? (“Thanatos”) Thanatos God of Death. Titans Greek name English name Description The Twelve Titans ??????? (Hyperion) Hyperion Titan of light. With Theia, he is the father of Helios (the sun), Selene (the moon), and Eos (the dawn). ??????? (Iapetos) Iapetus Titan of mortality and father of Prometheus, Epimetheus, Menoetius, and Atlas. ?????

(Koios) Coeus Titan of intellect and the axis of heaven around which the constellations revolved. ?????? (Kreios) Crius The least individualized of the Twelve Titans, he is the father of Astraeus, Pallas, and Perses. ?????? (Cronos) Cronus The leader of the Titans, who overthrew his father Uranus only to be overthrown in turn by his son, Zeus. Not to be confused with Chronos, the god of time. M???????? (Mnemosyne) Mnemosyne Titan of memory and remembrance, and mother of the Nine Muses. ??????? (Oceanos) Oceanus Titan of the all-encircling river Oceans around the earth, the font of all the Earth’s fresh-water. ????? (Phoibe) Phoebe.

Titan of the “bright” intellect and prophecy, and consort of Koios. ??? (Rhea) Rhea Titan of female fertility, motherhood, and generation. She is the sister and consort of Cronus, and mother of Zeus, Hades, Poseidon, Hera, Demeter, and Hestia. ????? (Tethys) Tethys Wife of Oceanus, and the mother of the rivers, springs, streams, fountains, and clouds. ???? (Theia) Theia Titan of sight and the shining light of the clear blue sky. She is the consort of Hyperion, and mother of Helios, Selene, and Eos. ????? (Themis) Themis Titan of divine law and order. Other Titans ??????? (Asteria) Asteria Titan of nocturnal oracles and falling stars.

???????? (Astraios) Astraeus Titan of dusk, stars, and planets, and the art of astrology. ????? (Atlas) Atlas Titan forced to carry the sky upon his shoulders by Zeus. Also Son of Iapetus. ???? (Aura) Aura Titan of the breeze and the fresh, cool air of early morning. ????? (Di? ne) Dione Titan of the oracle of Dodona. ??? (E? s) Eos Titan of the dawn. ????????? (Epimetheus) Epimetheus Titan of afterthought and the father of excuses. ??????? (Eurybia) Eurybia Titan of the mastery of the seas and consort of Krios. ???????? (Eurynome) Eurynome Titan of water-meadows and pasturelands, and mother of the three Charites by Zeus.

????? (H? lios) Helios Titan of the sun and guardian of oaths. ??????? (Clymene) Clymene or Asia Titan of renown, fame, and infamy, and wife of Iapetos. ???????? (Lelantos) Lelantos Titan of air and the hunter’s skill of stalking prey. He is the male counterpart of Leto. ???? (Let? ) Leto Titan of motherhood and mother of the twin Olympians, Artemis and Apollo. ????????? (Menoitios) Menoetius Titan of violent anger, rash action, and human mortality. Killed by Zeus. ????? (Me? tis) Metis Titan of good counsel, advice, planning, cunning, craftiness, and wisdom. Mother of Athena. ????? (Ophion) Ophion.

An elder Titan, in some versions of the myth he ruled the Earth with his consort Eurynome before Cronus overthrew him. ?????? (Pallas) Pallas Titan of warcraft. He was killed by Athena during the Titanomachy. ?????? (Perses) Perses Titan of destruction and peace. ????????? (Prometheus) Prometheus Titan of forethought and crafty counsel, and creator of mankind. ?????? (Sel? ne) Selene Titan of the moon. ???? (Styx) Styx Titan of the Underworld river Styx and personification of hatred.

Personified concepts Achlys (????? ), spirit of the death-mist Adephagia (???????? ), spirit of satiety and gluttony Adikia (??????), spirit of injustice and wrongdoing Aergia (?????? ), spirit of idleness, laziness, indolence and sloth Agon (???? ), spirit of contest, who possessed an altar at Olympia, site of the Olympic Games. Aidos (????? ), spirit of modesty, reverence and respect Aisa (???? ), personification of lot and fate Alala (????? ), spirit of the war cry Alastor (??????? ), spirit of blood feuds and vengeance Aletheia (??????? ), spirit of truth, truthfulness and sincerity The Algea (????? ), spirits of pain and suffering Achos (???? ) “trouble, distress” Ania (???? ) “ache, anguish” Lupe (???? ) “pain, grief, sadness”.

Alke (???? ), spirit of prowess and courage Amechania (???????? ), spirit of helplessness and want of means The Amphilogiai (?????????? ), spirits of disputes, debate, and contention Anaideia (???????? ), spirit of ruthlessness, shamelessness, and unforgivingness The Androktasiai (???????????? ), spirits of battlefield slaughter Angelia (??????? ), spirit of messages, tidings and proclamations Apate (????? ), spirit of deceit, guile, fraud and deception Apheleia (??????? ), spirit of simplicity Aporia (?????? ), spirit of difficulty, perplexity, powerlessness, and want of means The Arae (???? ), spirits of curses

Arete (????? ), spirit of virtue, excellence, goodness, and valour Ate (??? ), spirit of delusion, infatuation, blind folly, recklessness, and ruin Bia (??? ), spirit of force, power, bodily strength, and compulsion Caerus (?????? ), spirit of opportunity Corus (????? ), spirit of surfeit Deimos (?????? ), spirit of fear, dread, and terror Dikaiosyne (?????????? ), spirit of justice and righteousness Dike (???? ), spirit of justice, fair judgement, and the rights established by custom and law Dolos (????? ), spirit of trickery, cunning deception, craftiness, treachery, and guile Dysnomia (????????

), spirit of lawlessness and poor civil constitution Dyssebeia (????????? ), spirit of impiety Eirene (?????? ), goddess of peace Ekecheiria (????????? ), spirit of truce, armistice, and the cessation of all hostilities; honoured at the Olympic Games Eleos (????? ), spirit of mercy, pity, and compassion Elpis (????? ), spirit of hope and expectation Epiphron (??????? ), spirit of prudence, shrewdness, thoughtfulness, carefulness, and sagacity Eris (???? ), spirit of strife, discord, contention, and rivalry The Erotes (?????? ) Anteros (??????? ), god of requited love Eros (????), god of love and sexual intercourse.

Hedylogos (???????? ), god of sweet talk and flattery Himeros (?????? ), god of sexual desire Pothos (????? ), god of sexual longing, yearning, and desire Eucleia (??????? ), spirit of good repute and glory Eulabeia (???????? ), spirit of discretion, caution, and circumspection Eunomia (??????? ), goddess of good order and lawful conduct Eupheme (?????? ), spirit of words of good omen, acclamation, praise, applause, and shouts of triumph Eupraxia (E??????? ), spirit of well-being Eusebeia (E??????? ), spirit of piety, loyalty, duty, and filial respect Euthenia (???????), spirit of prosperity, abundance, and plenty Gelos (????? ), spirit of laughter Geras (????? ), spirit of old age.

Harmonia (??????? ), goddess of harmony and concord Hebe (??? ), goddess of youth Hedone (????? ), spirit of pleasure, enjoyment, and delight Heimarmene (????????? ), personification of share destined by fate Homados (?????? ), spirit of the din of battle Homonoia (??????? ), spirit of concord, unanimity, and oneness of mind Horkos (????? ), spirit of oaths Horme (???? ), spirit of impulse or effort (to do a thing), eagerness, setting oneself in motion, and starting an action Hybris (?????

), spirit of outrageous behaviour Hypnos (????? ), god of sleep The Hysminai (??????? ), spirits of fighting and combat Ioke (???? ), spirit of pursuit in battle Kakia (K???? ), spirit of vice and moral badness Kalokagathia (??????????? ), spirit of nobility The Keres (????? ), spirit of violent or cruel death Koalemos (???????? ), spirit of stupidity and foolishness Kratos (?????? ), spirit of strength, might, power, and sovereign rule Kydoimos (???????? ), spirit of the din of battle, confusion, uproar, and hubbub Lethe (???? ), spirit of forgetfulness and oblivion, and of the river of the same name Limos (?????), spirit of hunger and starvation.

The Litae (????? ), spirits of prayer Lyssa (????? ), spirit of rage, fury and rabies in animals The Machai (????? ), spirits of fighting and combat Mania (????? ), spirit or spirits of madness, insanity, and frenzy The Moirai, or “Fates” (?????? ) Clotho (????? ), the spinner of the life thread Lachesis (??????? ), the measurer of the life thread Atropos (??????? ), the severer of the life thread Momus (????? ), spirit of mockery, blame, censure and stinging criticism Moros (????? ), spirit of doom.

The Neikea (?? ????? ), spirits of quarrels, feuds and grievances Nemesis (???????), goddess of revenge, balance, righteous indignation, and retribution Nike (???? ), goddess of victory Nomos (????? ), spirit of law Oizys (????? ), spirit of woe and misery The Oneiroi (??????? ), spirits of dreams Epiales (??????? ), spirit of nightmares Morpheus (??????? ), god of dreams, who takes shape of humans Phantasos (???????? ) spirit of dreams of fantasy, who takes shape of inanimate objects Phobetor (??????? ) or Icelos (?????? ), spirit of nightmares, who takes shape of animals Palioxis (???????? ), spirit of backrush, flight and retreat from battle Peitharchia (????????? ), spirit of obedience Peitho (?????), spirit of persuasion and seduction.

Penia (????? ), spirit of poverty and need Penthus (?????? ), spirit of grief, mourning, and lamentation Pepromene (????????? ), personification of the destined share, similar to Heimarmene Pheme (???? ), spirit of rumour, report, and gossip Philophrosyne (??????????? ), spirit of friendliness, kindness, and welcome Philotes (??????? ), spirit of friendship, affection, and sexual intercourse Phobos (????? ), spirit of panic fear, flight, and battlefield rout The Phonoi (????? ), spirits of murder, killing, and slaughter Phrike (????? ), spirit of horror and trembling fear.

Phthonus (?????? ), spirit of envy and jealousy Pistis (?????? ), spirit of trust, honesty, and good faith Poine (????? ), spirit of retribution, vengeance, recompense, punishment, and penalty for the crime of murder and manslaughter Polemos (??????? ), personification of war Ponos (????? ), spirit of hard labour and toil Poros (????? ), spirit of expediency, the means of accomplishing or providing, contrivance and device Praxidike (????????? ), spirit of exacting justice Proioxis (???????? ), spirit of onrush and battlefield pursuit Prophasis (???????? ), spirit of excuses and pleas The Pseudologoi, spirits of lies.

Ptocheia (??????? ), spirit of beggary Soter (????? ), male spirit of safety, preservation, and deliverance from harm Soteria (??????? ), female personification of safety, preservation, and deliverance from harm Sophrosyne (????????? ), spirit of moderation, self-control, temperance, restraint, and discretion Techne (????? ), personification of art and skill Thanatos (??????? ), spirit of death and mortality Thrasos (?????? ), spirit of boldness Tyche (???? ), goddess of fortune, chance, providence, and fate Zelos ( ????? ), spirit of eager rivalry, emulation, envy, jealousy, and zeal Chthonic deities.

Amphiaraus (????????? ), a hero of the war of the Seven Against Thebe who became an oracular spirit of the Underworld after his death Angelos (??????? ), a daughter of Zeus and Hera who became an underworld goddess Askalaphos (????????? ), the son of Acheron and Orphne who tended the Underworld orchards before being transformed into a screech owl by Demeter Cerberus (???????? ), the three-headed hound who guarded the gates of Hades Charon (????? ), ferryman of Hades Empusa (??????? ), a monstrous underworld spirit or spirits with flaming hair, the leg of a goat and a leg of bronze. They are also servants of Hecate.

Erebos (?????? ), the primeval god of darkness, his mists encircled the underworld and filled the hollows of the earth The Erinyes (??????? ), the Furies, goddesses of retribution Alecto (?????? ), the unceasing one Tisiphone (???????? ), avenger of murder Megaera (??????? ), the jealous one Hecate (????? ), goddess of magic, witchcraft, the night, moon, ghosts, and necromancy.

Judges of the Dead Aiakos (?????? ), former mortal king of Aegina, guardian of the keys of Hades and judge of the men of Europe Minos (????? ), former mortal king of Crete and judge of the final vote Rhadamanthys (??????????), former mortal lawmaker and judge of the men of Asia Keuthonymos (?????????? ), an Underworld spirit and father of Menoetes Cronus (?????? ), deposed king of the Titans;

after his release from Tartarus he was appointed king of the Island of the Blessed Lamia (????? ), a vampiric Underworld spirit or spirits in the train of Hecate Lampades (???????? ), torch-bearing Underworld nymphs Gorgyra (???????).

Orphne (????? ), a Lampad nymph of Hades, mother of Askalaphos Macaria (??????? ), daughter of Hades and goddess of blessed death (not to be confused with the daughter of Heracles) Melinoe (???????), daughter of Persephone and Zeus who presided over the propitiations offered to the ghosts of the dead Menoetes (???????? ), an Underworld spirit who herded the cattle of Hades Mormo (????? ), a fearsome Underworld spirit or spirits in the train of Hecate Nyx (??? ), the primeval goddess of night Persephone (????????? ), queen of the underworld, wife of Hades and goddess of spring growth.

Rivers of the Underworld Acheron (?????? ), the river of pain Kokytos (K?????? ), the river of wailing Lethe (???? ), the river of forgetfulness Phlegethon (???????? ), the river of fire Styx (???? ), the river of oaths Tartarus (????????), the primeval god of the dark, stormy pit of Hades Thanatos (??????? ), spirit of death and minister of Hades Sea deities Aegaeon (??????? ), god of violent sea storms and ally of the Titans Achelous (??????? ), shark-shaped sea spirit[citation needed] Amphitrite (????????? ), sea goddess and consort of Poseidon.

Benthesikyme (??????????? ), daughter of Poseidon, who resided in Ethiopia Brizo (????? ), patron goddess of sailors, who sent prophetic dreams Ceto (???? ), goddess of the dangers of the ocean and of sea monsters Charybdis (???????? ), a sea monster and spirit of whirlpools and the tide Cymopoleia (??????????), a daughter of Poseidon married to the Giant Briareus Delphin (?????? ), the leader of the dolphins, Poseidon placed him in the sky as the constellation Delphin Eidothea (??????? ), prophetic sea nymph and daughter of Proteus Glaucus (??????? ), the fisherman’s sea god Gorgons (???????? ), three monstrous sea spirits Stheno (?????? ).

Euryale (??????? ) Medusa (??????? ), the only mortal of the three The Graeae (?????? ), three ancient sea spirits who personified the white foam of the sea; they shared one eye and one tooth between them Deino (????? ) Enyo (???? ) Pemphredo (???????? ) The Harpies (????????

), winged spirits of sudden, sharp gusts of wind Aello (????? ) or Aellope (??????? ) or Aellopous (????????? ) Ocypete (??????? ) or Ocypode (??????? ) or Ocythoe (?????? ) Podarge (??????? ) or Podarke (??????? ) Celaeno (??????? ) Nicothoe (??????? ) Hippocampi (?????????? ), the horses of the sea they are half horse with the tail of a fish Hydros (????? ), primordial god of waters The Ichthyocentaurs (?????????????? ), a pair of centaurine sea-gods with the upper bodies of men, the lower fore-parts of horses, ending in the serpentine tails of fish Bythos (????? ) “sea depth” Aphros (?????

) “sea foam” Karkinos (???????? ), a giant crab who allied itself with the Hydra against Heracles. When it died, Hera placed it in the sky as the constellation Cancer. Ladon (????? ), a hundred-headed sea serpent who guarded the western reaches of the sea, and the island and golden apples of the Hesperides Leucothea (???????? ), a sea goddess who aided sailors in distress Nereides (???????? ), sea nymphs Thetis (????? ), leader of the Nereids who presided over the spawning of marine life in the sea Arethusa (???????? ), a daughter of Nereus who was transformed into a fountain Galene (??????), goddess of calm seas.

Psamathe (??????? ), goddess of sand beaches Nereus (?????? ), the old man of the sea, and the god of the sea’s rich bounty of fish Nerites (??????? ), a sea spirit who was transformed into a shell-fish by Aphrodite Oceanus (??????? ), Titan god of the Earth-encircling river Oceanus, the font of all the Earth’s fresh-water Palaemon (???????? ), a young sea god who aided sailors in distress.

Phorcys (?????? ), god of the hidden dangers of the deep Pontos (?????? ), primeval god of the sea, father of the fish and other sea creatures Poseidon (????????), king of the sea and lord of the sea gods; also god of rivers, flood and drought, earthquakes, and horses Proteus (??????? , a shape-shifting, prophetic old sea god, and the herdsman of Poseidon’s seals Scylla (?????? ), monstrous sea goddess.

The Sirens (???????? ), sea nymphs who lured sailors to their death with their song Aglaope (??????? ) or Aglaophonos (?????????? ) or Aglaopheme (????????? ) Himerope (??????? ) Leucosia (???????? ) Ligeia (?????? ) Molpe (????? ) Parthenope (????????? )

Peisinoe (???????? ) or Peisithoe (???????? ) Raidne (?????? ) Teles (????? ) Thelchtereia (??????????) Thelxiope (???????? ) or Thelxiepeia (?????????? ) The Telchines (???????? ), sea spirits native to the island of Rhodes; the gods killed them when they turned to evil magic Actaeus (??????? ) Argyron (??????? ) Atabyrius (????????? ) Chalcon (?????? ) Chryson (?????? ) Damon (????? ) or Demonax (??????? ) Damnameneus (??????????? ) Dexithea (??????? ), mother of Euxanthios by Minos Lycos (????? ) or Lyktos (?????? ) Lysagora (???????? )? Makelo (?????? ) Megalesius (?????????? ) Mylas (????? ) Nikon (????? ) Ormenos (??????? ) Simon (????? ) Skelmis (??????? ) Tethys (?????

), wife of Oceanus, and the mother of the rivers, springs, streams, fountains, and clouds Thalassa (??????? ), primeval spirit of the sea and consort of Pontos Thaumas (?????? ), god of the wonders of the sea Thoosa (????? ), goddess of swift currents Triteia (??????? ), daughter of Triton and companion of Ares Triton (?????? ), fish-tailed son and herald of Poseidon Tritones (???????? ), fish-tailed spirits in Poseidon’s retinue Sky deities Achelois (??????? ), “she who washes pain away”, a minor moon goddess Aeolus (Aiolos) (?????? ), god of the winds.

Aether (????? ), primeval god of the upper air Alectrona (?????????), solar goddess of the morning or waking up Anemoi, gods of the winds Boreas (?????? ), god of the north wind and of winter Eurus (????? ), god of the unlucky east or southeast wind Notus (????? ) god of the south wind Zephyrus (??????? ), god of the west wind Aparctias (????????? ), another name for the north wind (not identified with Boreas)

Apheliotes (????????? ), god of the east wind (when Eurus is considered southeast) Argestes (???????? ), another name for the west or northwest wind Caicias (??????? ), god of the northeast wind Circios (??????? ) or Thraskias (???????? ), god of the north-northwest wind Euronotus (?????????), god of the southeast wind Lips (??? ), god of the southwest wind Skeiron (??????? ), god of the northwest wind Apollo, Olympian God of light, knowledge, music, healing, the sun, and the arts (also god of day).

Arke (???? ), messenger of the Titans and twin sister of Iris Astraios (???????? ), Titan god of stars and planets, and the art of astrology The Astra Planeti (????? ???????? ), gods of the five wandering stars or planets Stilbon (??????? ), god of Hermaon, the planet Mercury Eosphorus (???????? ), god of Venus the morning star Hesperus (??????? ), god of Venus the evening star Pyroeis (???????), god of Areios, the planet Mars Phaethon (?????? ), god of Dios, the planet Jupiter.

Phaenon (?????? ), god of Kronion, the planet Saturn Aurai (????? ), nymphs of the cooling breeze Aura (???? ), goddess of the breeze and the fresh, cool air of early morning Chaos (???? ), the nothingness from which all else sprang, she also represented the lower atmosphere which surrounded the earth Chione (????? ), goddess of snow and daughter of Boreas Helios (????? ), Titan god of the sun and guardian of oaths Selene (?????? ), Titan goddess of the moon Eos (??? ), Titan goddess of the dawn Hemera (?????), primeval goddess of daylight and the sun Hera (??? ), Queen of Heaven and goddess of the air and starry constellations Herse (???? ), goddess of the morning dew.

The Hesperides (????????? ) The Hades, nymphs that represented a star cluster in the constellation Taurus and were associated with rain Iris (???? ), goddess of the rainbow and divine messenger Nephelai (??????? ), cloud nymphs Ouranos (??????? ), primeval god of the heavens Pandia (?????? ), daughter of Selene and Zeus The Pleiades (???????? ), goddesses of the constellation Pleiades Alcyone (??????? ) Sterope (??????? ) Celaeno (??????? ) Electra (??????? ).

Maia (???? ) Merope (?????? ) Taygete (??????? ) Zeus (???? ), King of Heaven and god of the sky, clouds, rain, thunder, and lightning Rustic deities Aetna (????? ), goddess of the volcanic Mount Etna in Sicily Amphictyonis (??????????? ), goddess of wine and friendship between nations, a local form of Demeter Anthousai (???????? ), flower nymphs Aristaeus (????????? ), god of bee-keeping, cheese-making, herding, olive-growing, and hunting Attis (????? ), vegetation god and consort of Cybele Britomartis (??????????? ).

Cretan goddess of hunting and nets used for fishing, fowling and the hunting of small game Cabeiri (????????), gods or spirits who presided over the Mysteries of the islands of Lemnos and Samothrace Aitnaios (???????? ) Alkon (????? ) Eurymedon (????????? ) Onnes (????? ) Tonnes (?????? ) Centaurs (????????? ), a race of half-man, half-horse beings Asbolus (??????? ) Chariclo (??????? ), wife of the centaur Chiron Chiron (?????? ), the eldest and wisest of the Centaurs Eurytion (???????? ) Nessus (?????? ), a ferryman at the river Euenus Pholus (????? ).

The Cercopes (???????? ), a pair of monkey-like thieves who plagued the land of Lydia in western Anatolia Akmon (????? ) Passalos (???????? ) Chloris (??????), goddess of flowers and wife of Zephyrus Comus (????? ), god of revelry, merrymaking, and festivity Corymbus (???????? ), god of the fruit of the ivy The Curetes (???????? ), guardians of infant Zeus on Mount Ida, barely distinguished from the Dactyls and the Corybantes Cybele (?????? ), a Phrygian mountain goddess associated with Rhea.

The Dactyls (???????? ) “fingers”, minor deities originally representing fingers of a hand Acmon (????? ) Damnameneus (??????????? ) Delas (????? ) Epimedes (???????? ).

Heracles (not to be confused with the hero Heracles) Iasios (?????? ) Kelmis (?????? ) Skythes (??????) companions of Cybele Titias (?????? ) Cyllenus (???????? ) Dionysus (???????? ), god of wine, drunken orgies, and wild vegetation Dryades (??????? ), tree and forest nymphs Gaia (???? ), primeval goddess of the earth Epimeliades (?????????? ), nymphs of highland pastures and protectors of sheep flocks Hamadryades (?????????? ), oak tree dryades Hecaterus (????????? ), minor god of the hekateris — a rustic dance of quickly moving hands — and perhaps of the skill of hands in general Hephaestus (???????? ), god of metalworking Hermes (????? ), god of herds and flocks, of roads and boundary stones The Horae (???? ), The Hours.

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