When you think about the US you think about immigration, both the legal and the illegal immigration. The United States of America is a country buildup around immigration. Ever since the possibility of fleeing chaotic and poverty hit Europe had become a reality, many chose to take the jump and take the long journey against the possibilities’ country, America. Since the 16th century, where the country was discovered, it has been connected with “The American Dream” and a new start on life and a possibility to be able to create a better life for yourself, better than the one you knew from your home country and many immigrated for that chance.
The only Native Americans are the Indians all others are immigrants, most often more generations old. The US also has the largest and most technologically powerful economy in the world, this means that a lot of people still believe in “The American Dream” and therefore try to immigrate into the US. We will explain the illegal immigration to the US from Mexico in our task. After that we will look at the pros and cons of the illegal immigration financially. Subsequently we want to analyze which influence the illegal immigration has on the United States economy. Finally we’d like to see on what the present president, Obama thinks of the subject and reckon which possibilities it opens up for in the future among other things the Dream act.
Country portrait USA
The United States of America is a democratic federal republic with more than 9,6 billion km2 and a population of 310 million people. This makes them the third largest and third most populated country in the world. The US gained their freedom from the British Empire in 1776, and had first there been recognized as a nation. Ever since the breakaway from Brittan the US had a lot of issues on the national level. Among other things the civil war in the middle the 19th century. Up through the 19 and 20 century 37 new states was added to the republic, this resulted in the 50 states we know as the United States of American today.
It was not until after the Second World War the US took place as a superpower of the world and it has since been the all-dominant power both political and military, which has created the university-polar world community that we know today. The US has one GNP at 15.29 trillion $ which is the largest economy for a single country in the world, GNP growth was in 2011 on 1.7 % which ranks as a no. 162 in the world. The US has a complete workforce on 153.6 million (2011) and GNP per inhabitant on 49,000 USDS (2011) this gives a little misleading picture, since the difference between rich and poor is huge compared countries with less GNP per inhabitant.
The US has an unemployment rate on 9 % (2011) and an incredible 15.1 % of the population live under the poverty threshold (2010) the US is the result of a country with large immigration from many different countries over several hundred years, therefore the US is among the top of the countries in the world with most ethnic groups. The main spoken language in the US is English/American 82, 1% of the population speaks that while a staggering 10,7 % of the population only speaks Spanish this creates a lot of barriers and challenges for the country.
Issue – Illegal immigration from Mexico
The border between the United States and Mexico stretches more than 2.000 miles and has become a symbol of a boiling bowl of political issues between the two countries. It is especially the illegal immigration from Mexico to the United States that are causing problems.
* Mexico experienced economic turmoil in 1994, and there has been a large influx of Mexican immigrants ever since * Some 1.1 million people tries to cross the border and gets arrested every year * The Gini-coefficient (which is a measure of statistical dispersion that measures the inequality among values) illustrates the difference between living standards in the US and in Mexico. Where zero is complete equality, 100 is perfect inequality. Mexico has a gini index on 54,6 compared to the US which has a gini index around 46.
Push / Pull factors
This difference between the two countries might not be clear from the gini index. But there is a huge difference in living standards and possibilities of doing something grater with their lives than what is possible in Mexico.
* GDP per capita
* Mexico $14.800
* US $49.000
* Unemployment rate in Mexico may be as high as 25 %
* Crime with especially drugs and gun trafficking
* 51, 3 % of the population are living below the poverty line
* Difficult to develop a higher standard of living
* Unemployment rate in the US is about 9 %
* 15,1 % of the population are living below the poverty line
* There are work for the Latinos in the South
* “It’s hard work in the hot sun. Americans just don’t want to do it anymore,” said Betty Perez, a local rancher.
* Noticeable difference in the quality of life between the two countries
* Immigrants are chasing the “American Dream”
* Despite a recent report from the Pew Hispanic Center
* There will always be immigrants trying to immigrate to a better life
* Pull factors are getting lower and this might have an effect / still a huge push factor Issue – Linguistic Challenges
The linguistic challenges that arise because of the Mexicans’ immigration, have a huge effect on the us. By 2050 the United States will be the biggest Spanish-speaking country in the world.
* Education system loses quality, because of more Spanish talking students. Dropout rate for Hispanics is increasing.
* Hispanic get substandard health care
* Available jobs, but the language cause problems
* Spanish can be a gateway
The education systems lose quality, because of more Spanish talking students. The dropout rate for Hispanic between 16 and 19 years old who have poor English language skills is 59 percent. The Hispanic dropouts in educational institutions results in Hispanics with high an unemployment rate and low paying jobs. Hispanic Immigrants get substandard health care, because they cannot speak English well and not all hospitals have Spanish translators. Some places in the us there’s is actually jobs available for Hispanics, but manufacturing and retail employers can’t hire the immigrants, because of their bad English level, the immigrants aren’t able to be trained and placed in the jobs as well as the job safety requirements.
“You have to speak English on the job, so nobody has to be around you to tell you what the boss wants” or translate out of an instruction manual, said Jose Adame of Horn Lake, Miss. He came from Mexico nine years ago for work, but said he was not able to find a steady job as a machine operator until he improved his English. The growing standard of living among Spanish-talking countries affects the trading. South-America is a way more important country now to trade with, than it was before. Some places it’s actually good to speak Spanish, and can it can be a gateway for a job if you speak Spanish. Issue – Economical ups and downs from immigration
The constant wave of immigrants to the US presents some difficulties and some advantages. We will now try to uncover some of the economical ups and downs that have come as a result of immigration in the US.
Are there economic and social consequences of illegal immigration? Some say Illegal immigrants have cost billions of taxpayer-funded dollars for medical services, others say that they are an asset to the society. * One of Mexico’s largest revenue streams (after exports and oil sales) consists of money sent home by legal immigrants and illegal immigrants working in the U.S. * “All empirical study of illegals’ economic impact demonstrates that illegal immigrants contribute more than they cost.” – Francine J Mipman, Professor of Law, Business and Economics at Chapman University
* Many small cities in the south, close to the Mexican border, wont function without the immigrants. * Recent estimate from the Council of Economic Advisers is that immigrants as a whole (not just illegal immigrants) add about $37 billion a year to the U.S. economy, on net. * It’s typically young uneducated men who immigrate to the US, so they don’t really contribute that much. * Illegal immigration from Mexico caused a 3.6 percent reduction in the wages of non-high school graduates in the U.S. during 1980-2000.
Issue – President Obamas immigrations plans for the future
In November 2010 the Democrats lost the House and much of their Senate majority, which made it complicated for president Barrack Obama to successfully get his immigration politic reform through the senate. What is Barrack Obama’s immigrations plan for the next 4 years?
In 2008 president Obama ran for the president post with immigration as one of his main issues, but there has been a lack of progress on immigrations reforms, which Obama explains with a large Republican opposition, as well as a shift in priorities given the global financial crisis. Even though Barrack Obama admits that the lack of immigrations reforms are the greatest failure of his time as president. One of the main issues of immigration in USA is the deportation of young hard working people, who were brought to the country by their parents.
Obama will stop these deportations, and help those young men get an education and be a part of the society. Since the beginning of his time in office, President Obama has worked to build a consensus for Congress to pass comprehensive immigration reform. He plans to continue his efforts to work with Congress to pass a bipartisan immigration reform, and has promised to make it a priority of his second term as president. The President understands the challenges that immigrants face. That’s why he proposed a new rule to keep families together by allowing undocumented spouses and children of U.S. citizens to stay in the country while they begin the legal immigration process.
Conclusion / estimate
It is incredibly hard to draw any conclusions on the illegal immigrations part, mainly because they are illegal and no one keeps track of them. Some studies shows that the immigrants push the wage level down on certain jobs, but the overall picture is that they contribute to the US economy. The illegal immigrants are not allowed any social services, therefore the cost of having them in the country is low while they take jobs that most Americans aren’t interested in. The legal immigrants pose a different issue, they are eligible to social services, and often ship their money to Mexico to their families, but they also use a steady flow of money in the country, it is more of a 50/50 saturation with the legal immigrants.
Obama is going to continually try and make the US better for immigrants, and cut down on deportation of young people who were brought to the country by their parents. Obama will try to get a lot of reforms through the senate, but it’s going to be hard, depending on how the votes in the house goes at the election. The linguistic challenge presented by the Hispanic speakers in the US is something to take serious. The costs that public institutions in the US have to spend, to please all the Spanish speakers in the US, are huge. The educational challenge is also present here, the standards of the US education system has been dropping as a result of the Spanish speaking students.
Most of the used statistics have been found online by using CIA, the world factbook. We have used the quantitative method and compared the two countries (Mexico and the US) statistics with each other looking at both economic and social problems. While looking at the numbers and statistics we have been critical and double checked the statistics that we found on different sites both Danish and American. In addition to that we have looked at several articles that have spoken about the issue of immigration both looking at pros and cons. We also watched a film during class in which there where some useful information about immigration from Mexico.
Courtney from Study Moose
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