An ideological fighting between male and female beginnings exists since the time when this contrasting gender discussion has been born. Looking at male and female question from the psycho physiological angle there is a necessity to mention that entire discussion was always focused around the question: “who is better – male or female? ” Since the early beginning of the twentieth century any physiological or psychological difference between men and women were concerned with underlining the perfection or superiority of one gender above another.
Nowadays, the evaluation criteria have been changed and scholars more regularly talk about environmental, situational and early learning impacts on formatting and development male or female characteristics adopted by children belonging to different genders. It is essential that a society playing against women do the worst thing to men as well, because naturally created the both variants of human being – female and male cannot live without each other. What is the reasonable meaning in comparing them, perhaps, looking for some mysterious predominance?
Male and female intellectual abilities – comparative analysis The most recent psychometric researches are focused on linking the gender difference with cognitive learning abilities. They have showed that on the early development stage (during the first seven years) girls go ahead in the intellectual development, so learning things faster than boys. In the future this difference is smoothed and average men and women do not differ in their intellectual indicators. At the same time according to Dr.
Stanley’s psychometric research the number of absolutely talented male people is higher than female, but the number of mentally unwell individuals is also more frequently met among male population. Popular psychometric studies stress that exceptional talents are most common among boys, so they are the frequent winners of various intellectual competitions. Among the most talented people received the public recognition there are more males than females, but this factor cannot be taken as an absolute truth as we do not count the years, when females were treated as the “lower race”.
The number of laboratory tests made by Dr Stanley’s staff proved that although the average differences between the genders are small, they have shown the significant imbalance in mental abilities of the both genders. Comparative psychometric analysis have found out that women differ by more developed verbal intelligence capabilities, while men are better in visual –spatial intelligence. It is already a well known fact that the superiority of women in the speech functions is progressing from 10-11 years or even from earlier age, as there are the facts that 18 months’ girl knew about 50 words.
Boys are able to get at that vocabulary level only at 22 months. In the next years females are richer on vocabulary, and grammatical structure, women read more and learn to read faster than men. As a result women are more interested in people than objects; they are more prepared for various social situations than to solving mechanical problems. So in adult life, women have better language skills and better perception of external information, while the visual-spatial abilities remain an area leading by men. Long ago, in 1985, Pr.
Hilton has summarized the results of mathematic tests taken by American students, which was based on spatial relationships and their outcomes. The findings have shown that boys cope with the tests much better than girls. Psychosocial factors have a great impact on formatting and development of mathematical skills. These particular factors played the key role in Hilton’s tests performance. Male superiority in mathematical science can be explained by females being accustomed to idea, that mathematics isn’t a science, where they are able to make a good progress.
School statistics shows that even the girls, who passed mathematic courses successfully couldn’t see their future as working in this area. Female and male part in science and business Existing physiological differences between the genders are so obvious that during the long time researchers tried to set up the biological differences as the basis for cognitive abilities’ differences between men and women.
The inheritance mechanisms, sex differences in hormonal regulation, physical brain characteristics became a popular theme for discussion among researchers trying to discover the key point in identifying the differentiation of functions between men and women. Despite the fact that nowadays men and women are operating in science and business with the equal level of success and the both genders are proportionally presented in social, business and political spheres of public life, there are the certain features, which evidentially review science and business as a male occupation.
Initially and historically science and business were created by men, therefore they reflect the male norms and the male’s system of values. At the same time the scholars have found out that expectations of possible success is higher, when the occupation is perceived as a gender appropriate for particular individual, and lower, when it is taken as an appropriate occupation for the opposite sex. As a result, even nowadays, men are counting for success in science and business, where women still feel uncertain and most often do not count on serious results.
Media and published sources more frequently show the male image of science and scientist or businessman comparing to female image. It is evidence that business and science respond to male system of values even on cognitive level. Women are different: while the men are sure that they are loved and raised concern that they do, women are important to know that their work is necessary and useful for society, that it has some social or individual significance.
An outstanding fact is that male and female roles are differentiated not only in business and scientific aspects but also in popular stories and jokes. While women are pictured as chatter-boxes, money spenders, unfaithful wives, bad mistresses or always groaning things, which are quite emotional characters corresponding with psycho physiological analysis of female type, men are pictured as heavy drinkers, lazy bones, or divorce initiators, which are practical and decision making types.
Jokes and stories about women and men are focused on comic situations; however the real laugh is possible, where the utter contrast exists. So jokes and not serious stories are the mirror reflections of real life situations initiated by gender mental and physical differences. References: 1. Hilton, L. (1985). National changes in spatial-visual ability of from 1960 to 1980. Research report. Princeton.