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Hydrogen Essay Topics & Paper Examples

Hydrogen Summary

* This is how hydrogen fuel cells work: 1. Gas stored in tanks 2. Atoms reach anode 3. Become hydrogen ion and a free electron 4. Ion goes through electrolyte layer 5. Hydrogen ion passes, but free electron does not 6. Free electron runs through external circuit from anode (-) to cathode (+) 7. Current of electrons creates electricity 8. Hydrogen ion enters cathode and combines with oxygen to become water which is better for the ecosystem because water vapor is not dangerous. * Why hydrogen as fuel? Efficient: not expensive to fill and it gives you more range. Emission Conscious: Hydrogen fuel cell cars release water vapor back in the atmosphere and don’t damage it by releasing C02 just…

Two Carbohydrate Solution

This experiment consist of 2 part . First part is to test whether solution A and solution B are reducing sugar. Second part of the experiment is to investigate 2 type of reaction , biological reaction and chemical reaction. The chemical enzyme is hydrochloric acid while the biological enzyme is amylase saliva . The specific enzyme reaction involved in the experiment is hydrolysis reaction. Solution B is a polysaccharide which will break down into monosaccharide by hydrolysis reaction. Hydrochloric acid is a very strong acid and it can digest any that contact with it. At high temperature, hydrochloric acid can act as chemical enzyme which can hydrolyses polysaccharide. Hydrochloric acid can break down solution B and starch which are polysaccharide…

Handling a Sulphuric Acid Spill

There has been a spill of concentrated sulphuric acid at the chemical plant where I work at as the Safety Engineer. In this report, I will explain what Sulfuric Acid is, the health risks and hazards associated with it, the safety precautions that should be taken and how the spill should be handled. Sulfuric Acid, H2SO4, also commonly known as battery acid or vitriol, is one of the top products in the chemical industry, with 40 million tons produced annually in the U.S. It is a colourless, odourless and oily mineral acid that is soluble in water at all concentrations. Sulfuric acid is extremely hazardous; it reacts with water violently and exothermically and as a result, is highly corrosive. Safety…

The heat of combustion of ethanol

EXPERIMENT AIM: To determine the experimental heat of combustion of methanol (CH3OH) and ethanol (CH3CH2OH). To decide which would be a better choice to take on a camping trip. MATERIALS: 1 Copper container 1 Clamp 1 Spirit Lamp with Wick Ethanol 1 Retort Stand Methanol 1 Box of Matches Water 1 Electronic Balance Thermometer PROCEDURE: Firstly, Measure the weight of the empty Copper container on the electronic balance. Record your results in a table. Secondly, fill the copper container with 100ml of water. Thirdly, Attach the copper container to the clamp which is them attached to the retort stand. Fourthly, Measure the weight of the spirit burner containing known amount of Methanol (CH3OH). Fifthly, Measure the initial temperature of the…

Chemistry Laboratory Report

Title: Factors affecting reaction ratesProcedure A: Effect of ConcentrationAim: To investigate how the concentration of a reactant affects the rate of reaction. Hypothesis: The more concentrated the reactant, the faster the rate of reaction. Materials: 2M hydrochloric acid solution, magnesium wire, distilled water, 4 test-tubes, measuringcylinder. Procedure:1)10mL 2M hydrochloric acid solution is poured into a test-tube using a measuring cylinder. 2)A 3cm length of magnesium wire is added to the acid, and the stopwatch is started simultaneously. The time it takes for the magnesium to disappear into solution is recorded. This time is recorded in the results table. 3)The test-tube is rinsed thoroughly and step 2 is repeated using 8mL acid mixed with 2mL water. 4)This is repeated for each…

Hypochlorite Oxidation of endo-Borneol to Camphor

Purpose In this experiment, sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl) in acetic acid mixture was used to oxidize emdo-borneol (an alcohol) to camphor (a ketone). The product would then be purified by sublimation and then be analyzed by Infrared spectroscopy and melting point test. Procedure and ObservationsPlease refer to the lab manual and the carbon copy attached. Data and CalculationsWeight of endo-borneol = 0.2013gNo of moles of endo-borneol = 0.2013g/154.25g mol-1 = 1. 305mmolSince one mole of endo-borneol should give one mole of camphorTheoretical yield of camphor = (1.305 mmol )( 152.23g mol-1) = 0. 1987gTheoretical melting point of camphor = 179.75 oCActual Yield of the product (camphor) = 9. 5360 – 9. 4873 = 0. 0487 g% Yield of the product =…

Short Summary Essay on the Big Bang

The Big Bang theory is today’s dominant scientific theory about the origin of the universe. It states that the universe was created from an infinitely hot and dense subatomic ball, which once exploded not only created energy and matter, but space and time itself. This is estimated to have happened around 14 billion years ago. 300,000 years after the big bang took place the plasma of elementary particles had cooled to 3000K, during which atoms began to form as electrons came into orbit around protons and neutrons. It was at this point the universe also become more and more transparent, as previously the photons that had been created were exchanging energy with the fundamental particles. This could no longer take…

Factors Affecting Reaction Rate

Introduction: In reference to the collision theory, molecules act as small spheres that collide and bounce off each other, transferring energy among themselves when the collide. In order for a reaction to occur, there must be collisions between molecules. Through experimentation, factors are discovered that influence the reaction rates of chemical reactions include the concentration of reactants, temperature, surface area, the physical state of reactants, and a catalyst. This experiment regarding the factors that affect reaction rate tests the effects of increased concentration and temperature of the hydrochloric acid solution (HCl) and also the effect of increased surface area of magnesium metal (Mg). When glow sticks are immersed in a hot water bath, it is proven that they glow with…

Nvestigating The Rate Of Reaction Between Marble Chips And Hydrochloric Acid

Planning I will use marble chips and different concentrations of hydrochloric acid and water to see how it affects the rate of reaction. I will use concentrations of 50cm3 using different volumes of water and acid. Introduction I am investigating how the rate of reaction between marble chips and hydrochloric acid is altered when the concentration is changed. This is the word equation for my investigation, Calcium + Hydrochloric Calcium + Carbon + Water [IMAGE]Carbonate Acid Chloride Dioxide The symbol equation for my investigation is, [IMAGE]CaCo3 + 2HCL CaCL2 + CO2+ H2O Prediction I predict that when I have a higher concentration I will have a faster rate of reaction. Referring to Edexcel Science Revision Guide edited by Mary James,…

Determination of Iron by Reaction with Permanganate-A Redox Titration

The purpose of this experiment was to find the percentage of iron in an unknown iron oxide sample which could be determined through titration with a standard solution of potassium permanganate. Success in this analysis requires careful preparation and attention to detail. Performing this experiment also provides practice at titrations. The overall reaction is: 8H+(aq) + MnO4-(aq) + 5e-  Mn2+(aq) + 4H2O Theory: In acid solutions the permanganate ion undergoes reduction to manganese (2+) ion. Since the permanganate ion is violet and the manganese ion is colorless, the end point in the titrations using potassium permanganate as the titrant can be taken as the first permanent pink color that appears in the solution. This titration involves the oxidation of Fe2+…