Human Trafficking is a crime that’s been rapidly rising and becoming a major issue all over the world. Human trafficking is the trade in humans, most commonly for the purpose of sexual slavery, forced labor or for the extraction of organs or tissues, including surrogacy and ova removal. Human trafficking happens in many different forms. These forms of human trafficking mostly affect women and children. There are many forms of human trafficking. One of the many forms of human trafficking is sexual exploitation.
Sexual exploitation is the taking advantage of their sexuality and attractiveness of a person to make a personal gain or profit. Sexual exploitation has been going on for many years. Most women and children are trafficked for sexual exploitation. Poverty, gender-based discrimination and a history of sexual and physical violence are all factors that can make women and children vulnerable to traffickers. In most cases women and children are abducted and sold, some are deceived into consenting by the promise of a better life or a better job, and some feel that entrusting themselves to traffickers is the only economically viable option.
These individuals held and exploited in slavery-like conditions once they are trapped. Most of these women and children trafficked for sexual exploitation suffer extreme violations of their human rights, including the right to liberty, the right to dignity and security of person, the right not to be held in slavery or involuntary servitude, the right to be free from cruel and inhumane treatment, the right to be free from violence, and the right to health.
Human trafficking is a high-profit and low-risk endeavor for the traffickers. Traffickers have many tactics to prevent victims from escaping such as physical restraint in the form of locks and guards, physical or psychological violence, drugging or by instilling a fear of the police. The trafficking of women and children for sexual exploitation has a negative impact on the health and wellbeing of victims, which could be long term and ultimately life-threatening. Forced labour is another form of human trafficking.
Forced labour is any work or services which people are forced to do against their will under the threat of some form punishment. Forced labour is a global problem. The regional distribution of forced labour is: Asia and Pacific: 11. 7 million (56%), Africa: 3. 7 million (18%), Latin America and the Caribbean: 1. 8 million (9%), The Developed Economies (US, Canada, Australia, European Union, Japan, Australia, New Zealand, Japan): 1. 5 million (7%) and the Middle East: 600,000 (3%).
With increased possibilities for travelling and telecommunications, and with a growing demand for cheap labour in the developed world on the one hand, and increasingly restrictive visa regulations on the other, possible channels for legal labour migration have diminished. Private recruitment agencies, intermediaries and employers may take advantage of this situation and lure potential migrants into exploitative employment.
The International Labour Organization (ILO) estimates that there are at least 20. million people in forced labour worldwide. The figure means that, at any given point in time, around three out of every 1,000 persons worldwide are suffering in forced labour. Adults are more affected than children 74% (15. 4 million) of victims fall in the age group of 18 years and above, whereas children are 26% of the total (or 5. 5 million child victims). The state military is responsible for 10% of forced labour which mostly takes place in Burma, North Korea and China.
Organ trade is another form of trafficking that’s has become an issue in other countries. Organ trade is the trade involving inner organs (heart, liver, kidneys, etc. ) of a human for transplantation. Trafficking in organs is a crime that occurs in three broad categories. Firstly, there are cases where traffickers force or deceive the victims into giving up an organ. Secondly, there are cases where victims formally or informally agree to sell an organ and are cheated because they are not paid for the organ or are paid less than the promised price.
Thirdly, vulnerable persons are treated for an ailment, which may or may not exist and thereupon organs are removed without the victim’s knowledge. The vulnerable categories of persons include migrants, especially migrant workers, homeless persons, illiterate persons, etc. It is known that trafficking for organ trade could occur with persons of any age. Organs which are commonly traded are kidneys, liver and the like; any organ which can be removed and used, could be the subject of such illegal trade. Trafficking in organ trade is an organized crime, involving a host of offenders.
The recruiter who identifies the vulnerable person, the transporter, the staff of the hospital/clinic and other medical centers, the medical professionals, the middlemen and contractors, the buyers, the banks where organs are stored are all involved in the racket. It is a fact that the entire racket is rarely exposed and therefore, the dimensions are yet to be appropriately fathomed. In conclusion, human trafficking is a global issue that has been going on for thousands of years. Governments all around the world should take control of these issues and try to better protect the women and children affected by human trafficking.