Training and development is a major investment made by employers , and therefore great care should be taken to ensure adequate returns on the investment. Training and development. Some experts try to differentiate training from development. In this case, both training and development is in the same meaning. Training is more to short term, and focuses on current needs of the employee and the organization. Development meanwhile looks more to the future needs, whereby development are about preparing employees for tomorrow’s jobs, technology and economic situation.
Most on-the-job training efforts are about ensuring that employees can perform their present tasks as well as possible. Leadership programmes, on the other hand, are an example of the development initiatives taken by employers to ensure they have a steady supply of senior managers ready to drive organizational success. TRAINING EMPLOYEES. Training is a learning process that involves the acquisition of knowledge, skills, and abilities or known as K. S. A. K. S. A. is necessary to successfully perform a job. Several reasons exist for an organization to conduct training for it’s employees. Here are the 4 reasons why K.
S. A. is important. 1. Economic, social, technological, and government changes can make the skills learned today obsolete in the future. 2. Planned organizational changes (such as the introduction of new equipment) can make it necessary for employees to update their skills or acquire new ones. 3. Performance problems within an organization such as low productivity or large scrap problems can be reduced by training. 4. Regulatory, contractual, professional, or certification issues can require an employer to provide training for it employees. STEPS TO A SUCCESSFUL TRAINING PROGRAM. * Perform job analysis.
* Perform needs assessment * Establish training objectives * Conduct training program* Evaluate training outcomes Job analysis. Job analysis is actually more focusing on the Knowledge, skills, and abilities (K. S. A. ). K. S. A. is actually necessary to successfully perform a job. Perform needs assessment. Needs assessment is a systematic analysis of the specific training activities the organization requires to achieve it objectives. In general, five methods can be used to gather needs assessment information – 1. Interviews 2. Surveys / questionnaires 3. Observations 4. Focus groups 5. Document examination.
Interviews with employees can be conducted by specialists in the Human Resource Deaprtment or by outside experts. Basic questions that should usually be asked are as follows : 1. What problems is the employees having in his/her job. 2. What additional skills and/or knowledge does the employee need to better perform the job? 3. What training does the employee believe is needed? In conducting an interviews, every organization would have several additional questions about specific issues. In addition, if interviews are to provide useful information, employees must believe their input will be valued and not be used against them.
Surveys and/or questionnaires are also frequently used in needs assessment. Normally this involves developing a list of skills required to perform particular jobs effectively and asking employees to check those skills in which they believe they need training. METHODS OF TRAINING Several methods can be used to satisfy an organization’s training needs and accomplish it’s objectives. Some of the more commonly used methods include on-the-job training, job rotation, apprenticeship training, and classroom training. * On-The-Job training.
On-the-Job training or simply known as OTJ, is normally given by a senior employee or a manager. The employee is shown how to perform the job and allowed to do it under the trainer’s supervision. * Job rotation (cross training) One of the OTJ training is job rotation, sometimes called cross training. In job rotation, an individual learns several different jobs within a work unit or department and performs each job for a specified time period. One main advantage of job rotation is that it makes flexibility possible in the department. For example, when one member of a work unit is absent, another person can perform the job.
The advantages of OTJ training are that no special facilities are required and the new employee does productive work during the learning process. OTJ training has been found to be more effective than classroom training that may be seldom be used when the person returns to the job. It’s major disadvantages is that the pressures of the workplace can cause instruction of the employee to be haphazard or neglected. * Apprenticeship Training Apprenticeship Training provides beginning workers with comprehensive training in the practical and theoretical aspects of work required in a highly skilled occupation.
Apprenticeship programs combine OTJ and classroom training to prepare workers for more than 800 skilled occupations such as computer operator and laboratory technician. * Classroom Training Classroom Training is conducted off the job and is probably the most familiar training method. It is an effective means of imparting information quickly to large groups with limited or no knowledge of the subject being presented. It is useful for teaching factual material, concepts, principles, and theories.
Portions of orientation programs, some aspects of apprenticeship training, and safety programs are usually presented utilizing some form of classroom instruction. * Virtual classroom Internet technology has advanced rapidly and as a result the training of Prev Page employees is changing. In some companies, employee training has moved from the old typical style classroom to the internet. A virtual classroom is an online teaching and learning environment that integrates chat rooms, desktop video conferencing, web sites, and e-mail distributions into a typical lecture-based systems.
Virtual classroom offer training in either self-paced courses, real-time courses through intranets, or real-time video conferencing. In a typical virtual classroom, a professor lectures to a local class and a remote class that may be thousand of miles away. EVALUATING TRAINING When the results of a training program are evaluated, a number of benefits accrue. Less effective programs can be withdrawn to save time and effort. Weaknesses within established programs can be identified and remedied. Evaluation of training can be broken down into four areas : 1. Reaction – How much did the trainees like the program?
2. Learning – What principles, facts, and concepts were learned in the training program? 3. Behavior – Did the job behavior of the trainees change because of the program? 4. Results – What were the results of the program in terms of factorssuch as reduced costs or reduction in turnover? * Reaction Reaction evaluation should be consider a wide range of topics, including program content, structure and format, instructional techniques, instructors abilities and style, the quality of the learning environment, the extent to which training objectives were achieved, and recommendations for improvement.
Reaction evaluation questionnaires are normally administrated immediately following the training, but they can be administered several weeks later. The major flaw in using only reaction evaluation is that enthuasiasm of trainees cannot necessarily be taken as evidence of improved ability and performance * Learning Learning evaluation concerns how well the trainees understood and absorbed the principles, facts, and skills taught. In teaching skills, classroom Prev Page demonstrations by trainees are a fairly objective way to determine how much learning is occurring.
Where principles and facts are being taught, paper and pencils tests can be used. Standardized tests can be purchased to measure learning in many areas. In other areas, the trainers must develop their own tests. To obtain an accurate picture of what was learned, trainees should be tested both before and after the program. * Behavior Behavior evaluation deals with the nature of the change in job behavior of the trainee and is much more difficult than reaction of learning evaluation. The following guidelines can help evaluate behavioral change. A systematic appraisal should be made of on the job (OTJ) performance on a before and after basis.
The appraisal of performance should be made by one or more of the following groups (the more the better) * The trainee * The trainee’s superior * The trainee’s subordinates * The trainee’s peers or other people thoroughly familiar with his/her performance. A statistical analysis should be made to compare performance before and after training and to relate changes to the training program. The post-training appraisal should be made several months after the training so that the trainees have an opportunity to put what they have learned into practice. A control group (one not receiving the training) should be used. * Results.
Results evaluation attempts to measure changes in variables such as reduced turnover, reduced costs, improved efficiency, reduction in grievances, and increases in quantity and quality of production. As with behavior evaluation, pretests, posttests, and control groups are reqired in performing an accurate results evaluation. Prev Page BENEFITS OF TRAINING AND DEVELOPMENT As we know, training is designed to change attitudes, develop skills, and impart knowledge. Effective training programmes may require expenditure on the part of the employer, but they bring about a number of benefits to the organization, including –
* Increased productivity which in turn leads to higher profits. * More satisfied employees which lowers turnover rates. * Aid recruitment efforts making it easier to hire talented employees. * Trained employees are more innovative. * The company is in a better position to compete both nationally and internationally. Trained employees help ensure that company profits are maximized. At the same time, the training of employees is significant at the macro level of the economy. Well-trained staff can produce higher quality products which can successfully gain a good share of the world markets.
By training and development organizing work around subordinates becomes fairly easy. The span of control of the managers increase which help the organizations in low costs and thus better allocation of resources takes place. It also helps the managers effectively and efficiently attain the organizational goals. Also by training the employees helps the employees get updated with the latest skills and techniques, which in turn increase the productivity and output per worker and the marginal and average productivity per worker increases. THE MALAYSIA CASE ON TRAINING AND DEVELOPMENT.
Malaysia is an example country that really put an efforts in order to maintain and establish a good way of training and development. As we know, Prev Page Malaysia are now competing with highly sophisticated staff from many multinational company from many nations. Through this, the Malaysian government takes a keen interest in helping and encouraging employers to train their staff continuously. The government of Malaysia has established a number of initiatives which directly or indirectly help employers to train their employees. This include – * A free educational system up to secondary level.
* Subsidized tertiary education in public universities. * Encouraging top-class foreign universities to establish branches or campuses or conduct training programme’s . * Establishment of Industrial Training Institutes to train industrial training instructors. * Introduction of the Pembangunan Sumber Manusia Bhd. Act. (Human Resource Development Bhd. Act. ) International HRD Types of Expatriates Expatriates Free Agent Heart at Home Going Native Dual Citizen Proactive Career Stagnant Career Ethnocentric Adaptable Most Effective There are generally four types of expatriates managers : Free agent.
There are two types of free agent. The first includes people who put their career above either the parent company or the foreign operation where they Prev Page are working. They often are highly effective, but they will move with little warning from one company to another, may serve their own short term interests at the expense of the company’s long term ones, and do not plan to return to their home country. The second types of people are who takes foreign assignment only for the large compensation. Heart at home The heart at home type is very ethnocentric and usually eager to return home.
When the company wants strong headquarters control, this type of person may be useful and effective. Going native The going native type learns and accepts the local way of doing business, want to stay in the foreign location, and prefer not to consult headquarters. This type of person may be appropriate for situations in which the company follows multi domestic practices. Dual Citizen The dual citizen type has a clear understanding of global needs, why he or she is needed at the foreign subsidiary and local. This type of person usually finds methods to align the interest of headquarters and the subsidiary.
Generally, the dual citizen is most effective type of expatriate managers. Training and Development for Expatriate Managers Training focus on preparing the manager for a specific job, while development is concern with the developing skills of the manager when he work with the firm. Normally, most firms focus more on the training rather than on development of the management. Management development programmes for expatriate managers increase overall skills levels by continuing learning in management and rotations of managers through jobs within the global firms to gain more experiences.
Management development is best to used as strategic tool to build strong understanding about other culture and informal management network, both of which are supportive of a transnational and global strategy. Before expatriates are sent for their foreign assignment, they need to be Prev Page prepared for their foreign assignment, they need to be prepared for their new and more challenging tasks. So, it is important for expatriates well trained before they leave the country. Training for expatriates managers involve obtaining skills for a particular foreign posting.
Training can helps expatriates and their families to ready with the above problems related to the foreign assignments. Cultural training, language training, and practical training will help those expatriate to solve the problem and reduce expatriates failures. Cultural training Cultural training provides opportunities for expatriates to understand and value the culture of the host country. The training must be cover the country culture such as in aspect of history, politics, economy, religion, and social and business practices prior to departure.
Cultural training can promote an appreciation of the host country’s culture and help in expatriate adjustment. Language training Although the English is the international language, expatriates are needed to learn and understand some language of the host country. It is because to helps effective communication between locals and expatriates. Language training helps to improve expatriates’s effectiveness, aid expatriates in adjusting to foreign culture, and create a better corporate image. Practical training Practical training is the best mode to prepared the expatriates to adapt new environment and daily activities.
Sharing experiences with those who have been to the host’s country is one way to have real life experiences prior to departure. Once in the host country, seeking support from other expatriates from the same country would speed up the process of adaptation in the new environment. Practical training can help expatriates and family ease into day to day life of the host country. Repatriation training Another issue in training and development is repatriation which refer to preparing expatriates for re-entry into their home country organization.
This is the same to support expatriate to adjust the expatriate in a new environment. Prev Page Cross Cultural Training Cross cultural training is a kind of cultural training given to the potential expatriates before they go on their overseas assignments. Cross cultural training refers to the development of awareness between people where a common cultural framework does not exist. There are two approaches of cross cultural training which are cross cultural awareness training and culture or country specific training. Cross Cultural Awareness Training.
Cross cultural awareness training deals with the manifestation of culture in the workplace and has many applications. Its main purpose is to evaluate and undertake the challenges cross cultural differences can bring to the workplace. This training generates awareness of a foreign culture and creates understanding of how to foster mutual trust, respect, and understanding in a different culture. This training an effort to equip potential expatriates with the knowledge and skills to effectively manage a multi-cultural staff.
This training helps them to create fair and comfortable working environment and enhance negotiations with foreign clients or customers in discussing possible terms and conditions. Culture or Country specific training Culture or country specific training is commonly targeted at individual or teams that often visit a foreign country or who frequently interact with foreign client. Such training usually focuses on areas such as values, morals, ethics, business practices, etiquette, protocol, or negotiation styles with reference to one country.
This better equips participants with the key skills. Understanding and appreciating intercultural differences ultimately promotes clearer communication, reduces communication, reduces barriers, builds trust, strengthen relationships, open horizons, and yield tangible results in terms of business success. Repatriation of Expatriates Repatriation is a critical issues in the training and development of expatriates managers. Repatriation is concerned when the expatriates who have been living abroad for certain period of time for re-entry into their Prev Page home country.
Repatriation should be seen as the final link in an integrated, circular process that selects, train, sends, and brings home expatriate managers. Repatriation is the return of the expatriate to his or home country following completion of a lengthy foreign assignment. Repatriation is needed as expatriates who have spent a few years in host country cultures often experiences distress in readapting to their own home culture. The distress is normally caused by adaptation to the host country, followed by re-entry, which means that they have adapt to something that they left before.
This creates disturbance in the early period of coming back, and is referred to as reverse culture shock. The disturbance is worse when returning managers are not able to get the right position or nothing more than to get the position in the home office. Like expatriation, repatriation requires advance preparation. If repatriation is not properly managed, the expatriate will encounter problem when returning to the home country. Some of returning employees fell that their international experiences is not valued because they be placed in lower position rather than high position on overseas.
Moreover, some expatriates report that they have difficulties in financial upon returned. Many experiences reverse culture shock when in readjustment to home country culture. For employees and employee who have worked several years abroad have difficulties to readjustment the daily life like before. Problem with repatriation arises in three general areas such as personal finances, readjustment to the home country work environment, and readjustment to the home country social life. Companies give expatriate many financial benefits to encourage them to accept a foreign assignment.
While abroad, expatriates may live in the high standard neighbourhood and sent their children to the private schools, socialize with elite group, and still save more money because of high wages. Some of human resources practices for smoothing repatriation including providing expatriates with an advance notices of when they will return, more information about their new jobs, placement in suitable job regarding with their foreign experiences, housing assistance, reorientation programmes, periodic visits to headquarters, and enlisting a formal headquarters mentor to watch over their interests while.