Human Resource Management is defined as the policies, practices and systems that influence an employee’s behaviour, attitude, and performance in the attainment of organizational goals, and it is also a way of management that links people-related activities to the strategy of a business or organization. Now days, the human resource has an important function in the companies or organizations. The human resource provides significant support and advice to line management because many companies consider their human capital as their most important asset. The purpose of this report is to compare and contrast the human resource management between India and Canada.
This report will describe the human rights, recruitment, selection, training and development, and health and safety of Indian companies, and research the role of human resource in the recruitment and selection processes of Indian companies, and finally compare and contrast them to Canadian human resources practices. Moreover, this report will also analyze the cultural differences between Canada and India. The report aims to find difference human resource management between Canada and India, and improve the human resource management system of Canada.
Role of Human Resources in the Recruiting and Selection
Human resource plays an instrumental role in helping their organization achieve its goals of becoming a socially and environmentally responsible firm. In India, there is large-scale unemployment with shortage of skilled labour, hence, the role of HR in recruiting will provide the necessary tools to maintain a positive competitive labour market. Clearly defined role of Human Resources in Recruitment process is very important for measuring the success of the whole Recruitment Process. The overall setting of the HR Role in Recruitment is directly linked to Recruitment Strategy and HR Strategy.  Human resource and hiring managers play a highly significant role for setting the correct measures and defining the potential gaps in the whole recruitment process.
The role of Human Resources in India is increasing, from making the process working to the real management of HR Processes and the Recruitment Process was the first to manage. The Recruitment Strategy changed – the efficiency and costs to the company were more important. The role of HR in recruiting and selection process in India has following factors: 1) Decides about the design of the recruitment processes and to decide about the split of roles and responsibilities between Human Resources and Hiring Manager 2) Decides about the right profile of the candidate
3) Decides about the sources of candidates
4) Decides about the measures to be monitored to measure the success of the process The role of HR in Recruitment is very important to work on the development of the recruitment and selection process and to make the process very competitive on the market. Good recruitment and selection can make sure the organization has enough advantaged and appropriate employee and managers; in addition to that, it can lead to company work more efficiency. * Recruiting process has following steps:
1. Identify vacancy
2. Prepare job description and person specification
3. Advertising the vacancy
4. Managing the response
6. Arrange interviews
7. Conducting interview and decision making
* Selection involves the following components: Reception, screening interview, application blank, selection test, selection interview, medical test, reference checks, and hiring decision.
Human Resource practice in India
India is being widely recognised as one of the most exciting emerging economics in the world. Besides becoming a global hub of outsourcing, Indian firms are spreading their wings globally through mergers and acquisitions. During the first four months of 1997, Indian companies have bought 34 foreign companies for about U.S. $11 billion dollars. This impressive development has been due to a growth in inputs (capital and labour) as well as factor productivity. By the year 2020, India is expected to add about 250 million to its labour pool at the rate of about 18 million a year, which is more than the entire labour force of Germany.
This so called ‘demographic dividend’ has drawn a new interest in the Human Resource concepts and practices in India. In a general, if we look at the history of Human resource practice in recent years, we can see effect on the managerial history of India was to be provided by the British system of corporate organisation for 200 years. Clearly, the socio cultural roots of Indian heritage are diverse and have been drawn from multiple sources including ideas brought from other parts of the old world. In India, the Human resource management practice is in transition face it is learning new ideas from other parts of the world and also with growing population and growing multinational companies coming to India the work culture is continuously improving. One of the noteworthy features of the Indian workplace is demographic uniqueness.
It is estimated that both China and India will have a population of 1.45 billion people by 2030; however, India will have a larger workforce than China. Indeed, it is likely India will have 986 million people of working age in 2030, which will probably be about 300 million more than in 2007. And by 2050, it is expected India will have 230 million more workers than China and about 500 million more than the United States of America (U.S.). It may be noted that half of India’s current population of 1.1 billion people are under of 25 years of age. While this fact is a demographic dividend for the economy, it is also a danger sign for the country’s ability to create new jobs at an unprecedented rate. As he has been pointed out by Meredith. 
Here are some key factors responsible for shift in HRM practice in India 
Above figure presents the key drivers for contemporary Indian HRM trends. In Figure, there are four external spheres of intervention for HRM professionals and these spheres are integrated in a complex array within organisational settings. The intellectual sphere, which emphasises the mindset transaction in work organisations, has been significantly impacted by the forces of globalisation. The other three spheres, of figure, namely the emotional, the socio cultural and the managerial domains are undergoing, similar profound changes. Key HRM Practices in Indian Organisations:
The above figure describes the general HRM practise in Public sector Organization. In private sector the HRM sector is not organized. In Private sector THE HRM practice depends on individual company basis. Company Profile:
Infosys technology is a leading software company based in India which was established in 1981 and is listed in NASDAQ as a global consulting and IT services company with more than 122,000 employees. From a capital of US$ 250 they have grown to become a US$ 5.38 billion company with a market capitalization of approximately US$ 38 billion. In their journey of over 29 years they have catalyzed some of the major changes that have led to India’s emergence as the global destination for software services talent. 
The Company uses different sources like Campus Interviews, advertisements in newspapers and applications received through the company website. Firstly, they do not have any distinction between any branch of Engineering, applicant from any branch can apply for the selection process but the only criteria is to meet the requirement of grades, the applicant should be very well qualified and should have high grades and the time gap which means if any of the applicant was rejected in the selection process then they can only apply after 9 months. The qualified candidates are shortlisted and are called for a written test. 
Process of choosing individuals with qualifications needed to fill jobs in an organization. The duration of the selection process in Infosys is 2.5 hours which includes filling in an application form, an Aptitude Test ( Analytical Thinking and Arithmetic Reasoning) and a test of Communicative English Language. The duration of the tests is 90 minutes and the Aptitude Test consists of puzzles type and the number of questions varies between 9 to 15. 
Training and Development
Infosys training, continuing education and career development programs are designed to ensure that the technology professional enhances their skill-sets in alignment to their respective goals. The following are the types of training provided by Infosys to their new recruits and employees.
Technical Training by Education and Research Department
Most of the new candidates that are hired complete 14 weeks of integrated on-the-job-training prior to being assigned to their business units. All these training are done in a total area of 1.44 million square feet in The Infosys Global Education Center in Mysore- India, which can train approximately 14,000 employees at a time. As of March 31, 2010 they employed 610 full-time employees as faculty which included 208 employees with doctorate or masters degrees. The faculty also conducts integrated training for the new employees. They also make employees to undergo certification programs each year to develop the skills relevant that are for their roles. 
Personal Effectiveness and Managerial Programs
The above program is to enhance the managerial capabilities and leadership abilities in order to have better customer satisfaction, achieve their organizational vision and to create high performing multicultural teams. 
Creating an equitable and inclusive work environment
In 2008-09 Infosys were recognized for their efforts to promote a more inclusive work environment. They won the Corporate Award for Excellence in Gender Inclusivity instituted by the National Association for Software Companies (NASSCOM), India, for the second consecutive year. They also received the Helen Keller award which was instituted by the National Centre for Promotion of Employment for Disabled People, for the third consecutive year and they also won the ASTD Excellence in Practice Award for diversity training.  The Head -HRD, is the custodian of equal employment opportunity.
The Diversity Office and the HR department are responsible for coordinating efforts in implementing and disseminating information regarding the company’s diversity agenda. Being an IT services company they do not have any business identified as having risk for incidents of forced or compulsory or child labour, therefore they foresee risk of child labour in their supply chain in India, and therefore controls it through the vendor selection process.
Compensation and Benefits
Infosys compensates its human assets in three ways by adding learning value through training and development and appraisal practices. Infosys also adds emotional value through initiatives directed towards supporting employees with their work and personal needs and they also adds financial value through monetary compensation which is neither above nor below the market level. Infosys was one of the first Indian companies to offer stock option plans to their employees.
Infosys work-life policies reflect local requirements and regulations. The employees in India are eligible for paid maternity leave and paternity leave under the law which is referred as the Maternity Benefit Act, 1961 under which pregnant women can take paid leave up to 14 weeks, first seven weeks before delivery and other seven weeks after delivery and the maximum payment is $441.6 per week before tax. They also have satellite offices for new mothers, telecommuting for employees on need basis, adoption leave, flexible work hours, part-time work policy, one-year childcare sabbatical policy and near-site day care facilities. Employees can apply for scholarships for their children who have excelled in academics, arts and culture. Infoscions can also apply for extended family healthcare coverage. 
In addition to that they are also provide benefits such as statutory benefits as pension, medical insurance under Employee State Insurance Scheme which is an integrated measure of Social Insurance embodied in the Employees’ State Insurance Act and is designed to accomplish the task of protecting ‘employees’ against the hazards of sickness, maternity, disablement and death due to employment injury and to provide medical care to insured persons and their families. An employee covered under the scheme has to contribute 1.75% of the wages whereas, an employer contributes 4.75% of the wages payable to an employee. The total contribution in respect of an employee comes out to 6.50% of the wages payable. They are also offered loan program which was found attractive to the employees. Loans were taken for pursuing a degree program such as MBA, or to meet personal needs such as purchasing a car or a house. 
Health and Safety
The Health Assessment and Lifestyle Enrichment (HALE) program supports their healthcare policies at a global level. In Australia they have a unique practice of having a specialist available on call for ergonomics assessment in the work area. They also provide annual health checkups for all employees at their India-based locations. 
Comparison and Contrast between HR practice of India and china In comparison between India and Canada India’s ranks higher in Uncertainty Avoidance Index than Canada which means Indian wants clear cut responsibilities and job description. India’s Power Distance rank is also higher than Canada which means that in India there is unequal distribution of wealth and power in the society. India and Canada are at the opposite ends in terms of Individualism, with Canada displaying much greater Individualism than the collectivist society of India.
Canadians are more autonomous and self-control in the ability to make decisions and wants to work without direct supervisions, than Indian employees. Indian employees like to work more in tandem with their managers when setting personal goals than did Canadian employees. Indians are more forward thinking when planning actions and goals which found significant correlations between these differences in perceptions and differences in cultural characteristics which include power distance, uncertainty avoidance, and paternalism. Canadians scored lower on these traits than Indians. 
Chap – 5
About Cultural differences and Implications to Professional Practice India is a country in conversion. History, society, economic and cultural factors strongly influence Indian Human Resource Management (HRM) and mindset. The dynamic changes taking place in India, and their consequent influence and reflection in Indian HRM, the following factors provide essential background and context about key aspects of the Indian: language, geography and generational differences. Following the strong influence of the society cultural context in India does not always allow the applicability of Western management and organization theories. 
Pawan S. Budhawar, the Indian management scholar, he emphasizes that “to a great extent, this is a core issue for Western firms operating in the Indian context and sends a clear message to researchers in the field. The intention of both HR practitioners and researchers should be to continuously develop, test and re-test constructs suitable for conducting research and develop relevant practice in the Indian context.”  With the challenge of mixing Western management practices with Eastern management traditions, we have to understand the Indian HRM context and its related influence on mindset is a necessity for both Indian and Western organizations. In a typical leadership development project, here is an assumption about: First, there are more qualified candidates than available leadership positions (could be internally or externally. Second, turnover of employees identified as ‘key talent” will not increase. Third, employees who are not identified as “key talent” will accept that the assessment process is fair.
Indian human resource management will continue to evolve, and it will continue to be important characteristic of growth and sustainability.
Chap – 6
Other relevant topics
Generally speaking, In the process of recruiting, training management, the performance of India and Canada is similar. They use similar strategies for select right employees, like internal and external recruitment. Using skills tests and talent questions helping employers find a best person for the job. On the other hand, there are some obvious differences. Firstly, in Canada, there are a lots of policies (Provincial and territorial human rights legislation, Canada Human Rights Act) implemented by federal or national governments to protect the rights of employees, like policies about minimum wage employer must pay to workers, sexual orientation, marital status, and maximum work time. Besides that, when the rights of employees was ruined, employees can complain with some constitution including The Canadian Charter of Rights and Freedoms, Citizenship Commission. On the other hand, the policies protecting employees are scary.
Employees look for job by individual, and the salary and benefits paid to employees is determined by employers. Because India in a labour intensive country. The price is cheaper than Canada obviously. In addition, India do not have policies about minimum wage. The codes protecting the rights of women and young are in little quantities. Which is more, compared with Canada. It is harder for employees in India sue the company which exploits them. For instance Even though India is a labour intensive country, because of high growth of developing, it is not a big problem to find a job in their own country. A lot of jobs are created because of the increasing of market demands.
Since Canada is multicultural country. You can find people from Australia, Asia and Europe. They are seeking jobs in Canada. Apart from this Canada is a secular Country. So Canada has a lot of policies about avoiding discrimination like religion, race and color.
By analyzing and studying various reports and research paper we can say that there is vast difference between the HR practice between India and Canada. The rules and regulation regarding Human resource management are quite similar in both countries. The government of both Countries has made clear rules and regulations, but in India there is lack of implementation of the rules. Various research paper also indicates that the HRM is in transition phase, due to globalization the global practice becoming more and more familiar to Indian corporate groups. The study also suggests that there is socio-cultural influence on HRM practice in India. India has to go far to reach global HRM practice, but it is also showing good positive changes in terms of positive HRM policy guideline and support from government.
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7. Chatterjee, S.R. (2006). Human resource management in India. In A. Nankervis, Chatterjee, S.R. & J. Coffey (Eds.), Perspectives of human resource management in the Asia Pacific (41-62). Pearson Prentice Hall: Malaysia. 8. Meredith, R. (2007). The elephant and the dragon: The rise of India and China and what it means for all of us. New York: W.W.Norton & Co. 9. http://rphrm.curtin.edu.au/2007/issue2/india.html
10. http://www.infosys.com/about/who-we-are/Pages/history.aspx 11. http://www.ittestpapers.com/articles/-infosys-selection-procedure.html 12. http://www.infosys.com/investors/reports-filings/annual-report/annual/Documents/Infosys-AR-08.pdf 13.
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