Human migration is the movement by people from one place to another with the intention of settling temporarily or permanently in the new location. The movement is typically over long distances and from one country to another, but internal migration is also possible. Migration may be individuals, family units or in large groups.
Immigration is the movement of people into a country to which they are not native in order to settle there, especially as permanent residents or future citizens. Immigrants are motivated to leave their native countries for a variety of reasons, including a lack of local access to resources, a desire for economic prosperity, family re-unification, escape from prejudice, conflict or natural disaster, or simply the wish to change one’s surroundings.
1. Build background about human migration and types of migration. Explain to students that human migration is the movement of people from one place in the world to another. Ask: What are some different types of human movements? Then tell students that people move for many reasons, and that types of human migration include: •internal migration: moving within a state, country, or continent •external migration: moving to a different state, country, or continent •emigration: leaving one country to move to another
•immigration: moving into a new country
•return migration: moving back to where you came from
•seasonal migration: moving with each season or in response to labor or climate conditions
2. Discuss people who migrate. Tell students that people who migrate fall into several categories:
•An emigrant is a person who is leaving one country to live in another.
•An immigrant is a person who is entering a country from another to make a new home.
•A refugee is a person who has moved to a new country because of a problem in their former home
Have students provide specific examples of each to demonstrate understanding of the differences between the three terms.
3. Brainstorm reasons for migrating.
Ask: Why do people move? What forces do you think drive human migration? Then explain to students that people move for many reasons and that those reasons are called push factors and pull factors. Tell students that push factors include leaving a place because of a problem, such as a food shortage, war, or flood. Tell students that pull factors include moving to a place because of something good, such as a nicer climate, more job opportunities, or a better food supply. Ask: What effect does a region’s economy; climate, politics, and culture have on migration to and from the area? Have students brainstorm additional reasons for migrating, such as displacement by a natural disaster, lack of natural resources, the state of an economy, and more. The relatively permanent movement of people across territorial boundaries is referred to as in migration and out-migration, or immigration and emigration when the boundaries crossed are international.
The place of in-migration or immigration is called the receiver population, and the place of out-migration or emigration is called the sender population. There are two basic types of migration studied by demographers: 1.Internal migration. This refers to a change of residence within national boundaries, such as between states, provinces, cities, or municipalities. An internal migrant is someone who moves to a different administrative territory. 2.International migration. This refers to change of residence over national boundaries. An international migrant is someone who moves to a different country. International migrants are further classified as legal immigrants, illegal immigrants, and refugees. Legal immigrants are those who moved with the legal permission of the receiver nation, illegal immigrants are those who moved without legal permission, and refugees are those crossed an international boundary to escape persecution.
Jay Weinstein and Vijayan Pillai (2001) denote a third classification: forced migration. Forced migration exists when a person is moved against their will (slaves), or when the move is initiated because of external factors (natural disaster or civil war). The distinction between internal and international migration is crucial because they happen for different reasons. Because structural barriers are more likely to impede the mobility of a potential international migrant than an internal migrant—international migration involves more administrative procedures, greater expense, and more difficulties associated with obtaining employment, accessing state services, learning a new language, and the like—the motivations behind international migration are usually stronger than those behind internal migration (Weeks 1999).
Why do people migrate?
People have moved from their home countries for centuries, for all sorts of reasons. Some are drawn to new places by ‘pull ‘ factors, others find it difficult to remain where they are and migrate because of ‘push’ factors. These have contributed to the recent movement of people here but are also the reason why people from here have emigrated to other countries. Over 80 million people in the world have Irish blood; 36.5 million US residents claimed Irish ancestry in 2007. Historically some were transported or sold into slavery or left because of poverty, hunger, persecution, discrimination, civil war, unemployment and, more recently, simply for education and better jobs. Migrant numbers have risen rapidly in the last decade. In 2013 there were thought to be over 230 million international migrants.
Migrants are drawn increasingly to countries such as the UK and Ireland by the following factors: •Developed countries, or industrialised city areas within countries, draw labour from countries or areas where incomes are lower. •International transport has never been easier and is cheaper than ever, relative to incomes. •The telephone and internet make it easier to access information. •Falling birth rates in developed countries contribute to labour shortages and skills gaps. •Extra people are required when there is rapid economic expansion. •People are drawn to stable democracies where human rights and religious freedoms are more likely to be respected. •Many people in other parts of the world speak English.
•Young people move in order to get better jobs or improve their qualifications, including their language skills.
Negative factors at home add to the reasons why people feel compelled to move.
•Lack of prospects for career advancement
•Poverty and low incomes
•High unemployment rates
•Persecution and poor human rights
•Internal conflict and war
•Natural disasters, climate change and famine
The immigration, as a decision made by a person is an act that occurs, because of some factors especially in the under developed countries and the most important causes or reasons are mainly social reasons, politic reasons and economic reasons. For the first reason which is the social one , the underdeveloped countries know and suffer from crisis at the economic level, this factor leads the people to immigrates abroad in order togain money , and find a work. Also, poverty leads many people and pushes them to search for a work and gain money to solve their problems and afford their needs, but this isn’t available or easy to reach in their home country, so that they choose to travel abroad where the work is available and the cost of living isn’t rising, and where they can improve their social situation.
For the second reason, which is politic, and as we know, in some countries especially the underdeveloped one there is some civil wars between the citizenship, this fact means that there is no peace in that country and automatically we know that when there is no peace there is no normal life, because when the war start it damaged anything and everyone who is in front of it, and because of all that some people choose to travel abroad and avoid any trouble caused by the war. At least, and for the third reason, which is the economic one, the most underdeveloped countries suffer from the low salaries that the workers get, which push many of them to think of the immigration.
Also, those countries don’t afford for all the people enough jobs especially for the younger’s that are considered as new comers to the job market where they shocked when they discover that there isn’t enough jobs for them and so that their decision will be surely to travel abroad or to immigrate definitively . But the most dangerous problem is that some younger’s travel even if they have high degrees in different domains and this will leads those countries to fall in the problem of BRAIN DRAIN, so that their immigration could be a great loss for their countries, especially in a time where there countries are in a great need for their knowledge.
Finally, and in my opinion I think that every under country must afford enough jobs, especially for the Youngers those that are considered as the future of the country, and try to reduce the social problems and then stop the immigration.