From the moment we wake up to the time we sleep, most of the products used are hazardous to the environment directly or indirectly. A person voluntarily and non-voluntarily spends his day on the expense of atmosphere. Being aware of the dangerous effects of many products that we use, we continue using these products. From pencil that we use in school from the paper used in office and different furniture decorating our house are all made on the expense of surroundings. Most of the luxurious items like fridge, air condition and car all affect our ozone layer. Book Book is something that everyone uses regardless of age.
Be it reading, writing, coloring or for references. No one grows up without being around a book. Before the advent of internet books were only available on papers. There was no concept of electronic books. There are a lot of verities available in books. People make their own customized books for any event or refer to them on any subject. Children use it for reading purpose, drawing, coloring and writing. Components of a Book: Any basic book has the following components: • Laminate sheet. • Binder boards • Paper • Ink • Dye (For colored papers) • Thread • Adhesive Paper
Paper like we all are aware of is made from trees. These trees are cut in log form and sent to paper production factories. A machine then removes impurities and cut them into small equal sizes of wood chips through a chipper. These chips are then transformed into pulp through chemical pulping (wood chips are cooked in sodium hydroxide and sodium sulfide) or mechanical pulping (logs are beforehand chemically treated and then passed through a metal disk). This process tree oil and eradicate splits cellulose and hemi cellulose from the lignin. The remaining fiber is used to produce paper.
The cooked pulp is the washed to and processed through a bleaching tower to add brightness. Pulp is the modified and further refined. This pulp is then pressed against a wide screen drains out all the water cut in equal sizes. Fibers are shaped into mats and pressed through heavy rollers and then moved through hot dryers to evaporate excess water. In the end starch is added to fill gaps in the sheet surface. These sheets are then pressed between a roller and cut into smaller sizes for further usage (Essortment, n. d. ). At times clay and dye are mixed with these papers to add shine and color to them. Ink
Without printing inks there would be no books, papers or magazines. Knowledge would have had no proper way to being materialized and stored. Ink has four basic components. Pigments are used to color the ink, make it glossy and resistance from being affected by heat and light. It makes t he ink opaque. Some of the pigments used to make ink are extenders, opacifiers, inorganic black, organic yellow, organic orange etc. Resins is another ingredient that combines the ink together into a film and attaches it to the printed surface. It adds to the characteristics of ink being glossy and resistance to heat, chemical and water.
They are mainly produced at New Zealand. Few of the commonly resins used ate acrylics, alkyds, rubber resins, phenolics, hydrocarbons, polyamides, shellac etc. Solvent is the third most important element that which keeps ink in a fluid form where it is stored till its being shifted to the background where its being printed. Solvent has to disconnect from its storage body containing ink to be embossed on the surface being allowed to dry and form into proper image. Additives are used to modify the physical attribute of the ink to go with different conditions.
Varnish production is the first step in formation of ink. This is obtained through assimilation of resins, solvents and additives to structure a consistent fusion. The longer these components are allowed to react into a bigger molecule, varnish turns out to be more glutinous. Pigments are later added to the varnish which results into cluster of pigment particles. Different machines are used to break these clumps and spread them equally through the ink (Sengenuity, n. d. ). Adhesives Many different types of adhesives are used in bookbinding. Starch, animal glue, emulsion and hot-melt are its few examples.
All have chemicals involved in them. Water based emulsion adhesive for instance is made from emulsification and polymerization of acetic vinyl, ethylene vinyl acetate (EVA) and acrylic resin in water. Due to the absence of organic solvent this adhesive is inflammable and not toxic. After compiling papers in a proper sequence, adhesive is spread on the spine or binder board (could either be of a thick paper sheet or cloth) that serves as a support for bookbinding It then permanently joints papers and the thick sheet carrying adhesive together. Adverse Effects on Environment
Paper Paper that we use for almost everything is manufactured on the expense of trees. Trees absorb carbon dioxide through their pores existing in leaves and accumulate it in there soil, wood, bark and leaves. They turn carbon dioxide into oxygen that we breathe. It controls erosion and cleans underground water system. It stabilizes dust entrapping air polluting gases and cools the air turning water into vapors. Thus cutting trees are one of the major causes of global warming. Paper companies should spread the message of growing plants and tree in the environment.
They should have public service messages on television, radio and behind all the printed books. Tress cut for the process of pulp production should also be replaced with new ones. Paper production consumes a lot of water and energy. Ink should be washed off from the paper before decomposing it. Wasting papers should be discouraged everywhere. They should be recycled. Usage of recycled paper should be encouraged. Many tree free papers are also being used in different parts of the world. They are made from sugarcane fiber, cereal straw, banana stalk etc. Ink Chemicals used in making ink like petroleum hydrocarbon.
They discharge volatile organic compounds (VOC) while drying that creates waste, air pollution and is a source of many health diseases. Pigment has perilous metals like cadmium, mercury, chromium. Minerals oil used to clean printing machine also releases VOC in air. In many countries news papers and pages from books are used to wrap food items. Ink is transferred into human bodies when they eat from that paper. Also at the time of paper recycling, ink does not wash off entirely. A sensible alternative of this dangerous ink would be switching to vegetable based ink made from soy or linseed oil.
They have many advantages. They decrease the amount of VOC released in the atmosphere. It does not contain hazardous heavy metal. They contain non-toxic soybean oil used in cooking, dressing and beverage. They are easily recycled and emanate less amount of toxic residue. It also increases American agriculture economy by providing them with a market. Ink made by soy ink is more rick and bright and creates less waste on press (Proia, Jennifer, n. d. ). Adhesives Adhesive has its own inauspicious impact on environment. Ethylene vinyl acetate emulsion is known for explosive gas that pollutes air and water.
At the time of production it may cause skin and eye irritation. Adhesives should be washed off before decomposing paper. Adhesive should have less amount of inflammable chlorinated hydrocarbon. Solvents should be put back in the production cycle without damaging the environment. Many companies use white emulsion which is pollution free, nonflammable, non-toxic and harmless. It has been certified from China Environmental Labeling Products and ISO 14001 International Management System for bein ‘Double Green’ environmental friendly product.
Conclusion More or less every thing that we use has unpleasant effect on the environment. Consumption of these products and their consequences are inevitable. In such case it is highly imperative to use alternative techniques that diminish precarious results. They may include growing more trees and plants, recycling, using more recycled products, spreading information about products that are harmful to the environment and their less dodgy alternatives. Negligence to these important facts has already stared to destroy our nature.
As individuals, one should make a habit to study about the products and its components that we use regularly in our lives and educate others about its side-effects too. References Essortment. How is paper made from trees? Accessed on April 2, 2009. http://www. essortment. com/all/paperhowismad_rrfn. htm Proia, Jennifer. Going green with your marketing materials. Accessed on April 3, 2009. http://www. graphic-design. com/DTG/Business/greenprint. html Sengenuity. Printing ink technology and manufacture. Accessed on April 2, 2009. http://www. sengenuity. com/tech_ref/Process%20Control%20for%20Printing%20Ink%20Applications. pdf