The Traditional Approach – it is assumed that employees are economically motivated and work to earn as much money as they can. * Frederick Taylor developed a method of structuring jobs that he called scientific management. The Human Relations Approach –This approach assumes that employees want to feel useful and important, that employees have strong social needs, and that these needs are more important than money in motivating employees. The Human Resource Approach – the human relationists believed that illusions of contribution and participation would enhance motivation; that the contributions themselves are valuable to both individuals and organizations.
Need-Based Perspectives on Motivation
The Hierarchy of Needs Theory – developed by Abraham Maslow 1. Physiological needs – the most basic needs which includes food, sex , water, and air 2. Security needs – scrod thing that offers safety and security such as adequate housing, clothes, and freedom from worry and anxiety. 3. Love and belongingness needs – are primarily social that includes the need for love and affection and the need to be accepted by groups or peers. 4. Self esteem needs – the need for self-image and self-respect and the need to be respected by others. 5. Self-Actualization needs – the top of the
hierarchy that involves a person’s realizing his or her full potential and becoming all that he or she can be.
ERG Theory – developed by Clayton Aldelfer
E – existence needs
R – relatedness needs
G – growth needs
Dual Structure Theory – developed by Frederick Herzberg
* it was originally called the “two-factor theory”
Other important needs
The need for achievement – it is most frequently associated with the work of David McClelland. This need arises from an individual’s desire to accomplish a goal or task more effectively than in the past. The need for Affiliation – the need for human companionship where individual tends to want reassurance and approval from others and usually is genuinely concerned about others’ feelings. The need for power – the desire to control one’s environment, including financial, material, informational, and human resources.
Process-Based Perspectives on Motivation
The equity theory of motivation – this type of motivation is based on the simple assumption that people in the organizations want to be treated fairly. The theory defines equity as the belief that we are being treated fairly in relation to others, and inequity as the belief that we are being treated unfairly compared with others.
When a person feels equitably treated, and then she is motivated to maintain her status quo.
When a person is experiencing inequity whether it is real or imagined, she is motivated to reduce it.
Six common methods to reduce inequity:
1. Change the inputs – we may put more or less effort into the job, depending on which way the inequity lies. 2. Change the outcomes – we may
change our own outcomes like demand a pay raise or seek additional revenues for growth and development. 3. Change our perceptions and behavior – change the original assessment and decide that we are contributing less but receiving more than we originally believed. 4. Change our perception of the comparison-other’s inputs or outcomes – our perception of other people is based on perceptions and perceptions can be changed. 5. Change comparison – we may change the object of comparison like we may conclude for instance, the current comparison-other is the boss’s personal favorite, whether unusually lucky or has special skills and abilities. 6. Leave the situation – the last resort that might decide the only way to feel better is about things is to be in a different situation altogether.
The expectancy theory of motivation
Victor Vroom – is generally credited with first applying the theory to motivation in the work place.
Expectancy theory – the theory attempts to determine how individuals choose among alternative behaviors. This motivation depends on how much we want something and how likely we think we are to get it. 1. Effort-to-Performance Expectancy – a person’s perception of the probability that effort will lead to successful performance. 2. Performance-to-Outcome Expectancy – person’s perception of the probability that performance will lead to a certain other outcomes. 3. Outcomes and Valances – An outcome is anything that might potentially result from performance. The Valence of an outcome is the attractiveness or unattractiveness (the value) of that outcome to a person.
The Porter-Lawler Model –
Performance results in two rewards: intrinsic and extrinsic rewards. 1. Intrinsic rewards – tangible rewards
2. Extrinsic rewards – intangible rewards
Learning – is a relatively permanent change in behavior or behavior potential that results from direct or indirect experience 1. Traditional view:
Classical Conditioning – developed by Ivan Pavlov in his famous experiments with dogs. 2. The contemporary view: Learning is a Cognitive Process – it assumes that people are conscious, active participants in how they learn.
Reinforcements Theory and Learning
Reinforcement theory – is also called “operant conditioning” which is associated with the work of B. F. Skinner * it assumes that behavior is a function of its consequences.
Types of Reinforcements In Organization
Reinforcement – it is the consequences of behavior.
1. Positive reinforcement – it is a reward or other desirable consequences that follows behavior which motivates an individual. 2. Avoidance – also known as negative reinforcement, is another means of increasing the frequency of desirable behavior. Instead of receiving a reward following a desirable behavior, the person is given the opportunity to avoid an unpleasant consequence. 3. Extinction – it decreases the frequency of behavior, especially behavior that was previously rewarded. If rewards are withdrawn for behaviors that were previously reinforced, the behavors will probably become less frequent and eventually die out. 4. Punishment – like extinction, also tends to decrease the frequency of undesirable behaviors.
SCHEDULES OF REINFORCEMENTS IN ORGANIZATION
1. Continuous – rewards behavior every time it occurs. It is very effective in motivating desirable behaviors, especially in early stages of learning. 2. Fixed-Interval – is reinforcement provided on a predetermined, constant schedule. 3. Variable-Interval – also uses time as the basis for applying reinforcement, but it varies the interval between reinforcements. 4. Fixed-Ratio – the number of behaviors needed to obtain reinforcement is constant. 5. Variable-Ratio – the numbers of behaviors required for reinforcement varies over time.
Communication – is a social process in which two or more parties exchange
information and share meaning.
PURPOSES OF COMMUNICATION
1. Achieve coordinated action – the primary purpose of communication is to coordinate responses by sending a message to different parts of the organization. 2. Information sharing – most important information relates to organizational goal, which give a member a sense of purpose and direction and also to give specific task direction to individuals. 3. Express feelings and emotions – people in the organization often needs to communicate emotions such as happiness, confidence, anger, displeasure, and fear.
COMMUNICATION ACROSS CULTURE
Language – differences in language are compounded by fact that the same word can mean different things in different cultures. Coordination – international communication is closely related to issues of coordination.
METHODS OF COMMUNICATION
1. Written – written communication is typically used or produced by organization when communicating with an individual, generally someone outside the organization. 2. Oral – most prevalent form of organizational communication is oral. It takes place everywhere, whether it is formal or informal conversation, in meeting, speeches, and presentation etc. 3. Non-verbal – it includes all elements associated with human communication that are not expressed orally or in writing.
THE COMMUNICATION PROCESS
1. Source – it is the individual, group, or organization interested in communicating something to another party. 2. Encoding – it is the process by which the message is translated from an idea or thought into symbols that can be transmitted. 3. Transmission – it is the process through which the symbols that carry the message are sent to the receiver. 4. Decoding – it is the process by which the receiver of the message interprets the meaning. 5. Receiver – it may be an individual, group, or organization, or an individual acting as a representative of a group. 6. Feedback – it is the
receiver’s response to the message. 7. Noise – this refers to any disturbance in the communication process that interferes with or distorts communication.
1. Wheel – it is a pattern in which information flows between the person at the end of each spoke and person in the middle. 2. Chain – each member communicate with the person above and below, except for the individual on each end. It is a typical communication in vertical position which communication travels up and down the chain of command. 3. Circle – each person communicates with the people on both sides but not with anyone else. The circle network if often found in task forces and committees. 4. All-channel – it is often found in informal groups that have no formal structure, leader, or task to accomplish.
Communication fidelity – it is the degree of correspondence between the message intended by the source and the message understood by the receiver. Semantics – it is the study of language forms
IMPROVING ORGANIZATIONAL FACTORS IN COMMUNICATION
Reduce noise – noise is the primary barrier to effective organizational communication. * Grapevine (rumor) – a common form of noise, an informal system of communication that coexists with the formal system. Foster informal communication – informal communication fosters mutual trust, which minimizes the effects of status differences. Open communication can also contribute to better understanding between diverse groups in an organization. Develop a Balanced information Network – organizations need to balance information load and information-processing capabilities.