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Human Anatomy Essay

1.Dependent Variable: plasma levels of glucose, ketones, insulin, and glucagon

2.Independent Variable: food and beverage intake

3.Controlled Variables: physical activity, caffeine and alcohol intake, gender, age, BMI

4.Why were physical activity and caffeine and alcohol intake the controlled variables?

5.What type of assay was used to measure plasma glucose and ketone levels?

6.What type of assay was used to measure plasma insulin and glucagon levels?

1.When was plasma glucose concentration highest? If values are similar for several time points (within a few points of each other), then give range of times when plasma glucose concentration was highest.

2.When was plasma glucose concentration lowest? If values are similar for several time points, then give range of times when plasma glucose concentration was lowest.

3.When was plasma ketone concentration highest? If values are similar for several time points, then give range of times when plasma ketone concentration was highest.

4.When was plasma ketone concentration lowest? If values are similar for several time points, then give range of times when plasma ketone concentration was lowest.

1.When was plasma insulin concentration highest? If values are similar for several time points, then give range of times when plasma insulin concentration was highest.

2.When was plasma insulin concentration lowest? If values are similar for several time points, then give range of times when plasma insulin concentration was lowest.

3.When was plasma glucagon concentration highest? If values are similar for several time points, then give range of times when plasma glucagon concentration was highest.

4.When was plasma glucagon concentration lowest? If values are similar for several time points, then give range of times when plasma glucagon concentration was lowest.

5.When was plasma insulin/glucagon concentration highest? If values are similar for several time points, then give range of times when plasma insulin/glucagon concentration was highest.

6.When was plasma insulin/glucagon concentration lowest? If values are similar for several time points, then give range of times when plasma insulin/glucagon concentration was lowest.

Discussion

1.Explain how insulin changed plasma glucose concentration over the course of the experiment.

2.Explain how glucagon changed plasma glucose concentration over the course of the experiment.

3.Explain what caused the change in plasma ketone concentration over the course of the experiment.

4.Explain how negative feedback caused the changes in plasma insulin concentration observed during the experiment.

5.Explain how negative feedback caused the changes in plasma glucagon concentration observed during the experiment.

6.The insulin/glucagon ratio changed over the course of the experiment indicating changes in glucose storage and changes in ability to increase blood glucose concentration via glycogenolysis and gluconeogenesis. State when glucose storage capability was highest and why.

7.State when glycogenolysis and gluconeogenesis were highest and why.

8.Explain how a high blood ketone level helps the body conserve blood glucose. It means that you body is capable of burning a significant amount of fat and you can dispel it in your urine.Most people rely on glucose in the blood for energy. Insulin is a hormone that takes up glucose into cells where it can be burned or stored for later use.

9.Restate your predictions that were correct and give the data from your experiment that supports them. Restate your predictions that were not correct and correct them, giving the data from your experiment that supports the correction.

Application

1.During exercise, epinephrine and norepinephrine are released from the adrenal medulla. Epinephrine and norepinephrine have the same effect on plasma glucose levels as glucagon. Explain how epinephrine and norepinephrine affect plasma glucose and why this is important during exercise.

2.The symptoms of diabetes mellitus include high plasma glucose levels and ketoacidosis (blood pH decreases due to increasing levels of ketones). Explain how diabetes causes these symptoms.


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