Human resource development and knowledge is extremely essential for the success of an organization because HRD reflects upon the objectives and goals of the business which can be achieved through proper human resource planning and management activities and also through implementing the most effective human resource learning theories such as behaviorism theory and situated theory of learning which enhances the skills and talents of the employees to a great extent. (Allan, C. Greg J. Bamber, Nils Timo.. , 2006). It is extremely important for all organizations and managers to acknowledge the fact that the highly competitive business environment of today’s world mainly focuses upon the efficient use of human resources through learning and training them so that they can produce the maximum in a given time rate.
Therefore, managers should clearly understand that they need to concentrate all their efforts into obtaining the best from their human resources. Butteriss,M. , 1998). Human resource development and management has always been a topic of discussion. Companies over many decades have tried to understand the complexities of human resource management and many researchers, analyst and great managers have come up with various theories and ideas to deal with this issue. (John B. P, 2009). To go forward with the discussion of HR development, we should first of all clearly understand what appropriate human resources are.
Appropriate human resources refer to the individuals within the organization who make a valuable contribution to management system goal attainment. Research into this matter has proven that production in all businesses is accomplished by effective human resource interaction and combination of human resource management and theories. (Sheehan, C. , Peter Holland, Helen De Cieri. , 2006). Research has proven that if employee management and performance management (appraisal) works side by side then no problem can stop the organization from going towards success.
For example, if through employee training and learning and training theories, the performance and output of the worker is evaluated then that knowledge regarding the workers performance can help the organization in giving bonuses and rewards to the worker for his dedication, motivation and hard work. (Bray, M. and Peter Waring. , 2006). For instance, a worker’s performance is checked through the performance appraisal system and it proves that the worker is very efficient and hardworking, then that worker can be awarded rewards and bonus for his efficiency and effectiveness. Peetz, D. , 2005) Extensive research into this matter has also proven that if organizations only focus on building and training their employees and do not focus on any program of performance check or management then these organizations will not be able to achieve effective results in the long run. This is because employees need to be constantly checked in order to find out whether they are working with dedication and motivation or whether their skills have become outdated or not. Leaving employees totally on their own can lead to disastrous effects.
Performance management has become extremely popular in the recent years because its worth and value has been recognized by most organizations nowadays. Human resource managers now clearly understand that without appraising the performance of their workforce they can never find out how productive and effective their workforce is. Moreover, performance appraisal also allows the organization to give bonuses to their employees for good performance and to motivate them more for the future.
Research shows that due to performance appraisals nowadays employees are dealt with strictly when they come late to work on a regular basis. Therefore, performance appraisal immediately makes the employees more efficient and effective and ends any kind of laid back behavior that they already had towards their work. (Mamman, A. and Christopher J Rees. , 2005) HR Management and development comprises of not only employee training but it consists of a broader aspect of employee development, learning and education.
Through research, it has been found that the employees who have obtained extensive training, learning and development education are the most efficient and effective ones to work in today’s highly competitive business environment HR management basically tries to build the skills and work tasks of the employees so that they can give maximum success and productivity to the organization for which they work. (Ghai, D. ; Hewitt, C. , 1994)
Research proves that the accuracy and fairness of the performance appraisal of employees keeps changing every now and then because the role of HR management itself is continuously changing all over the world due to a multiple reasons. (Hicks, N. L. ,1993) Furthermore, the recent crisis the world is facing namely, the War on Terror, has greatly affected the financial condition of the economy of the world due to which oil prices have increased, unemployment has increased, corruption has risen, privatization and consumerism has taken place and all these policies have had a very strong impact upon HRD as it changes to reduce employee stress. Freeman, C. ; Soete, L. , 1993).
There are many theories given by a lot of renowned scholars on various issues of HR Management. Two of them are Behaviorism Theory and the other is the Situated Theory. These two theories play a major role in enhancing a trainer’s understanding of the learning process. The Theory of behaviourism is useful for the development of competencies and also for exhibiting technical skills. This is a learning theory and is most advantageous when a change in behavior of a worker is desired.
This theory is really helpful for all the major organizations in the world as it plays an important role in judging the attitudes of the employees. Behaviourism is actually a model of training for employees. The systematic training designs, training objectives, computer or electronically device based learning, and also competencies are all a major part of behaviorist learning theory. There are few assumptions related to this learning theory which are to be given importance in order to implement it in an organization.