It is the art and science of acquiring, motivating, maintaining and developing people in their jobs in light of their personal, professional and technical knowledge, skills, potentialities, needs and values in synchronization with the achievement of individual, organization, and society’s goals.
Functions of a Human Resource Manager
* In charge of the management of an organization’s workforce, or human resources * Responsible for the attraction, selection, training, assessment and rewarding of employees * Oversees organizational leadership and culture
* Develops new approaches
* Generates innovative ideas that are strategically aligned with department goals * Serves as a change agent and leads change efforts
HR Manager as Competency Developer
Human Resources is an asset that need to be managed conscientiously and in tune with the organizations needs. Todays most competitive organization are working to ensure that – now and a decade from now – they have employees who are eager and be able to address competitive challenges, this means recruiting and retaining superior talent and stimulating employees to perform at peak levels.
For organization to succeed in today’s competitive and complex environment, employee at all levels need to develop and demonstrate “the personal capabilities, underlying characteristics and behaviours that drive superior performance at work”.
Keeping the organization and its human resources competitive is one of the most important role of a Human Resource Manager.
* It is the ability of an individual to do a job properly * It is a combination of knowledge, skills and behaviour used to improve performance * It is linked with personal development as a management concept * Competency is not “fixed” – they can usually be developed with effort and support * Competency should be made visible/accessible
Competencies are coachable, observable, measurable and critical to successful individual or corporation performance
Why the need to develop competency:
* Highlight the value of the organization
* Provide clear guidelines of success
* Enable greater flexibility to move people laterally and encourages development * Provide practical tools for performance management
* Help to identify gaps between current capabilities and future requirements * Help in focusing training and development efforts on areas with greatest need and/or impact * Facilitate organizational change and building desired culture * Provides employees with a roadmap for building strengths and closing development gaps
Competencies, when correctly identified and used, have proved to be one of the most powerful tools for an organization to meet its business results, through its people. Competencies help in establishing common criteria for hiring, training, measuring, and rewarding people with the right capabilities to help the organization gain competitive advantage Competency models are often used within human resource departments of organizations to define success of both individuals and groups. Competency models can be used in a variety of ways, such as assessing of candidates’ qualifications for jobs to developing training programs and in executive recruitment and coaching.
Effectiveness of Competency Model
* Be aligned with business and organization goals and needs * Support
the business strategy
* Be future focused
* Translate abstract concepts into observable behaviours and activities * Be suitable for multiple application (if necessary)
* Be selective, focused on a few competencies that are actually key for company or individuals performance * Do make so specific that it cannot be used elsewhere in the organization
Types of Competencies
When we speak about competencies, they can generally be divided into two main categories: 1. Core Competencies
Core Competencies are based on the organization’s mandate, key values, and goals. They describe those behaviors that are necessary for successful performance in all jobs throughout the agency. In other words, these core competencies are necessary for the agency to meet its strategic goals and priorities. They are found in every job, but to varying degrees.
The core competencies for all roles are:
* Building Relationships
Builds rapport, develops relationships and identifies opportunities for Partner/Community involvement, collaborates with stakeholders on an on-going basis and establishes new partnerships/strategic relationships
* Developing Others
The ability to foster the learning and development of others (individuals, staff, and peers) through coaching, mentoring and empowering so that people have a deep sense of commitment and ownership. It includes promoting an environment of continuous learning and self-development that contributes to on-going success. Developing others is applied to all roles and is not limited to formal positions of authority
Acts consistently, in the workplace, according to Basic Values of openness
and honesty Acts on Values despite emotional risk to self
* Listening, Understanding and Responding
Listen actively and responsively
Accurately assesses Human Behaviour
It is a focus on and commitment to involving the individual in the community and influencing the community to assist in meeting the needs and goals of the individual. It involves the use of persuasive techniques or negotiation skills to achieve desired results, advocates for the rights of the individual and proactively encourage the integration of the individual into the community. At higher levels, advocacy involves thinking about what the other party cares about, thinking win-win, and framing arguments in light of their issues
* Quality of Service
Maintains clear communication
Takes personal responsibility for correcting problems
Acts to improve quality of service for the individual of stakeholder Addresses underlying needs of individual or stakeholder
Uses a long-term perspective/acts as a trusted advisor
It is important here to understand that these competencies will help agency staff to more effectively meet the needs of the individuals that are served by the agencies. For example, by engaging in advocacy and building community relations, accessibility and community education will be strengthened. As leaders help staff to grow and develop, staff members can better assist individuals to grow and develop. A strong service orientation helps everyone stay focused on who we serve and allows us to adapt to changing expectations and needs. A strong ability to listen and understand underlies all that we are trying to accomplish in being person-centered and respectful. Over time, a path for superior performance is laid.
2. Job-Specific Competencies
Job Competencies refer to the key interpersonal and personal skills and abilities that are necessary to specific types of jobs within the agencies. The job specific behavioural competencies are:
* Professional Excellence
Wants to do job well
Creates own measures of excellence
Sets and works to meet challenging goals
The ability to adapt to and work effectively within a variety of situations, and with various individuals or groups. Flexibility entails understanding and appreciating different and opposing perspectives on an issue, adapting one’s approach as the requirements of a situation change, and changing or easily accepting changes in one’s own agency or job requirements.
* Information Gathering and Analysis
Investigates and sees patterns
Researches and applies complex concepts
Clarifies complex concepts and scans the environment
* Opportunity Seeking
The ability to identify a problem, obstacle or opportunity and take action and/or proactively create opportunities to resolve or prevent problems. It is an orientation towards actively seeking out opportunities for the individual that will assist in enhancing involvement within his or her community.
The ability to keep one’s emotions under control and restrain negative actions when provoked, when faced with opposition or hostility from others, or when working under conditions of stress. It also includes the ability to
maintain stamina under continuing stress
* Strategic Thinking
Aligns current actions with strategic goals of the organization Integrates goals with plans and approaches
Integrates goals with operations
Understands external impact on internal strategy
* Team Leadership
Keeps people informed
Promotes team effectiveness
Obtains resources/takes care of the team
Positions self as the leader
Communicates a compelling vision
Involves working co-operatively with others, being part of a team, working together, as opposed to working separately or competitively. These behaviours apply when one is a member of a group of people functioning as a team
It is important to note that these competencies are defined at different levels for different jobs. At the same time, it is important to keep in mind that we need to think through issues and concerns, solve problems and stay aware of our environment. We need to work as a team and support each other. As issues change, we must remain flexible, but never lose sight of what the agency is trying to accomplish. We must focus on achieving results and taking initiative to help support the individuals we serve, and to allow them to participate fully in the community.
Human Resource Development
Human Resource Development is the framework for helping employees develop their personal and organizational skills, knowledge and abilities. Human Resource Development includes such opportunities as employee training,
development, performance management and development, coaching, mentoring, succession planning, key employee identification and organization development.
The Human Resource Manager should identify, administer, develop and evaluate the training and development needs of personnel. Through this training and development, personnel acquire not only skills and competency in their present jobs but also capacities for future managerial positions.
The efficiency of an organization depends greatly on the training and development of personnel.
* Improving employee competencies needed today or very soon * Typical objective is to improve employee performance in a specific job
* Improving employee competencies over a longer period of time * Typical objective is to prepare employees for future roles
Importance of Training and Development
* Develop competencies that match strategy
* It helps personnel to utilize and develop his potential * Foster cohesiveness and commitment
* Improve commitment and retention
* There will be competent replacement for more responsible positions * Career advancement opportunities
* Improve competitiveness
* Increase productivity
* Improve service
* Implement new technology
* Trained personnel increase their market value and earning power
HR Managers need to provide opportunities for employees to improve their knowledge, skills and expertise, but at the same time they have to find ways to retain employees and their knowledge. HRM practices and HR strategies have to be designed and delivered to keep employees and their knowledge in the organization. It is not always possible to retain employees in organizations and, sometimes, it is even good idea to let go of some of the existing staff and introduce a new wave of employees to the organization to improve innovation and creativity. However, this does not mean that organizations should also let go of the knowledge they have invested to be created and developed over the years. Although employees come and go, knowledge should be kept and developed for the future competitiveness of the organization. HR Manager as a Change Leader
Change Leadership is the ability to energize and alert groups to the need for specific changes in the way things are done. People with this competency willingly embrace and champion change. They take advantage of every opportunity to explain their vision of the future to others and gain their buy-in. HR Managers should play an active role in developing and maintaining an organizational environment supportive of change and diversity * Encourages others to value change
* Effectively communicates the reasons for change
HR Managers should be anticipatory and proactive rather than reactive. Because of rapid change in both technological and demographic, HR Manager is in a pivotal position for helping to create an organizational environment supportive of such change
HR Managers should also develop innovative approaches to streamline complex situations.
The planning processes of most best practice organizations not only define what will be accomplished within a given time-frame, but also the numbers and types of human resources that will be needed to achieve the defined business goals (e.g., number of human resources; the required competencies; when the resources will be needed; etc.).
Organizations must also have a talent management HR system that stores and reports information on employee competencies, and enables some or all parts of the Career Development and Succession Management process, for example: * employee / multi-source competency assessment;
* catalogued learning resources;
* on-line registration for courses / programs;
* job / role matching that compares employee competencies against targeted role / job requirements; * various reporting capabilities that support both Succession Management (e.g., lists of employees ready for targeted positions / role) and broader HR Planning.
* Michael Armstrong. A Handbook of Human Resource Management Practice. 2007 * Zorlu Senyucel. Managing the Human Resource in the 21st Century. 2009 * ITAP International. Global Competency Development. 2013 * Jackson, Schuller & Werner. Managing Human Resources. * HRMBusiness.com.Competency Development: The HRM Professional’s Key Role.2008 * Success through HR Professionals.novascotia.ca.2012
In rapidly changing business environments, organizations are recognizing the value of a workforce that is not only highly skilled and technically adept, but more importantly, a workforce that can learn quickly, adapt to change, communicate effectively, and foster interpersonal relationships. These characteristics, or competencies, are critical to organizational survival, productivity, and continual improvement. By focusing on the full range of competencies or whole-person assessment, the emphasis is on potential, or what the person can bring to the organization, rather than on a set of narrowly defined tasks based on job requirements. Organizations that select for competencies such as creative thinking begin to build a high-performance culture. Using competencies as the basis for staffing provides the flexibility needed to select and place individuals where they can best serve the organization One of the strengths of competency models is that they are often linked to the business goals and strategies of the organization. Additionally, competency models provide insight into core competencies that are common to multiple jobs within an organization Competencies provide a common language across HR functions; therefore, they provide a natural foundation for integrating these functions. Competencies support these new roles since they can be linked to and promote the strategic mission and values of an organization. The linkage of occupation-related competencies and activities to the organizational mission and goals provides a clear line of sight between individual and team performance and organizational success. The organization can reward the accomplishments directly related to the agency’s mission and reward those competencies that drive organizational success. By aligning the strategic plan with competencies, an organization can effectively derive recruitment, selection, and training strategies that will support projected future needs, resulting in high-performing employees and a high performance organization