Andre Breton founded in 1924 a cultural movement that uses visual imagery in making artworks. The artworks are usually influenced by Freudianism, a theory started by Seigmund Freud form the field of psychology who dealt with sensual matters in his studies, oral fixation, and other things which are controversial to hear. With everything formed under the subconscious mind. The ancestors of movement were Baudelaire, Rimbaud and Apollinaire, with some advices from an Italian painter Chirico.
Through the subconscious, more easily imagined is when someone is asleep, and they believe that the inspiration comes when they dream, and whatever it is in their dreams, they convert into a work of art. Many of the people who constitute the Surrealist movement are from the Dada movement, which critiques conventional aesthetics and the way these conventions are used from literary and art evaluation or appreciation. Usually their artworks are hard to understand because of the different approach and the techniques they use. Bohemianism on the other hand has to come to the level that it already became a religion.
Their teachings focus on the impact of an individual to the world, thus giving their believers appreciation of their individuality. The same way with Surrealists, “Bohemians” do not use the conventional way of literary criticisms. They also dwell in ideology, mythology and religion. Their doctrine involves: 1) saying that each individual is powerful and he should use this power to stand out; 2) implying that life should be lived to the fullest, in our own unique way; 3) that what is more important is our effect when we already died, not while we are still living.
These teachings are somewhat deviant from the teachings of almost every religion in the world. Since both Surrealism and Bohemianism separate themselves from the usual, then maybe this is the reason why their teachings are really against what is normal, or what have already been considered as norms. Both groups might have thought that they will shine when they oppose the norms, thus achieving the “live life to the fullest” concept. The twentieth century saw major changes for French women, what factors were most important to changing gender roles in twentieth-century France?
The women of today, on some major parts of the world, already achieved some level of respect, or maybe equal, or maybe even higher in with respect to how men, whom from the very beginning have a total hold. The women of Australia, New Zealand and Finland were given the right to vote in years 1902, 1893 and 1906, respectively. These were the pioneering countries to the idea of giving importance in the right of women to express their political freedom to vote. The attainment of women empowerment in France had been very slow.
According to historical evidences, the role of women in France was just sewers of socks for the military men, agents who give first aids to the injured; some were just whores to give satisfaction to the needy troops. Also, believe it or not, they were involved in the manufacture of air crafts. Most of them also worked for paid employment to sustain their families while their husbands attend to their military responsibilities. The turning point of French women’s career was when the same right was given to them. It was in 1944 that the first election involving women voters happened.
Their first appearance to elections was in 1945, twice for the same year that involved municipal elections and after 6 months was followed by the parliamentary elections upon the approval of the French Provisional Government. The French Revolution gave way for women to voice out the oppression they undergo during that time. The French women’s movement forty years ago arose. Feminists went to the open due to this movement; this gave them the strength to pursue whatever has already been started. The feeling of being marginalized and mistreated opened the idea for them to “revolt”.
Women even penetrated the politics. They began questioning equality. One of the premises they tackled is marriage, the role of men in the household and the possibility of divorce. Why was the French Army so skeptical of Republicanism during the Nineteenth and twentieth centuries? Republicanism is a political concept with focus on protecting liberty. During the war in France, the issue of liberty erupted even more because of the destabilization that occurred because of the distraction brought about by violence.
This was alarming that time when France was really unstable for some periods because of a defeat in war. Who does not want liberty? Everyone desires for one’s freedom. The French Army was so alarmed to after being defeated, given the situations that might erupt when the mind of the people of France currently under the parliamentary regime began elucidating ideas that might lead to their destabilization. Some parts of France might take advantage of the losses the French government had that time.
In 1870, the Third Republic emerged as a period of normalization: the healing period. The army was skeptical under this regime, but has finally reached stability. They are confused to what may happen and if they are ready enough to face the consequences. The new regime was fully recognized after the election in the Chamber of Deputies where majority of the votes are in favor of the republican setting. The only mentality of the French army was always about how they will keep the war in favor of them.
Maybe because of the losses, personal and as a part of the troops were they not that mentally capable of envisioning what will happen. In the early 20th century France was actually in war with Germany. France was indeed not ready for the battle, thus they cannot entertain an internal conflict anymore. The French army was in the custody of General Marshal Joffre, who was actually of strong belief to the concept of the Third Republic under the presidential leadership of Adolphe Thiers, who first used political monarchy and gradually transformed to the republic.
Why was religion such a contentious question in modern French history? In some countries in the world, their government is a separate entity from religion. The Catholicism discourages the interference politics in religion vice versa, because of the said “dirt” that might penetrate into the minds of the believers. On the other hand, in some part of the globe, some religions do political endorsements that is why some politicians support this kind of group because he knows that it could be of great help in gathering votes.
In the same way that they guard their relationship with other religions because any conflict that might arise between them shall take part in the security of their names as political figures. Some people in modern France choose not to get affiliated with any religion, because they think religion is enforcing something to them in line with politics, and in the same manner that they are no longer firm in their religion because they find it political. These theories of them, the exchanges of influences made them to choose no religion at all.
In this manner we could see how the French rendered the idea of just being intellectual, by being practical, which could actually make sense for many of them. Some people go to Islam. Theorists say that people doing it are playing-it-safe because Islam is a less “political religion” than other major religions in France. They say Islam is more practical; they dwell much of preserving their traditions and cultural preferences that minding those of the political matter. A revolution in France in 1848 paved a way for Church-State relations.
Liberal Catholicism is historically known to be allied with monarchy, but supported the existing political power that time in the existing regime, which was actually anti-clerical. Although this relationship was developed, the bond did break only for a short period of time. There were actually 3 archbishops from Paris, Bordeaux and Lyons who gave their direct statement to the public mentioning that the religious flag will exist under the shadow of the republican flag. Time came when revolutions arose, people shouting for the separation
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