In comparison to other sectors of Industry, the tourism industry is well developed at Malaysia. This industry effects in a positive manner in giving a boost to the Malaysian economy with a rapid increase in the earnings, of foreign exchange along with good employment opportunities. In the year 2005, it was declared by the World Tourism Organization that Malaysia stands 14th in the overall ranking based on the international tourism arrivals.
Among the 53 different common wealth countries Malaysia ranks 3rd next to Britain and Canada. A wide increase in the foreign revenue generation was noticed in the year 2006 and the tourism sector generated about US$18. 1 billion through export revenue, which is almost 10% of the total foreign revenue earned by the country. Different efforts were taken by the government of Malaysia, to make the country more developed and a prime place of attraction for tourist from all parts of Asia and world.
You can notice a huge infrastructure and physical development was given due priority by the government of Malaysia along with the established projects of tourism with good attraction of tourism for the prospect of the country (Jamil. J, 2007). After the independence of Malaysia, the Malaysian people put their concern on the western influences on the tourism development (Din, 1982). The tourism development continued its journey with a vision for the national development, the civilization of Islam, with a great progress in the parallel with the teachings of Islam (Islam,H, 2005).
Out of the world’s 57 Muslim countries, only four countries manage to earn 17. 5 million tourists in 2004. The countries are Malaysia, Morocco, Egypt, and Turkey (Islamic countries Seek Bigger Piece of Tourism Pie, 2005). The tourism policy and its implementation in Malaysia As per as the overall development of Malaysia is concerned, NEP directly influenced it from 1971 to 1990. In later part NEP was replaced with the introduction of New Development Policy from the period 1991 to 2000. Several objectives of NEP were included in New Development Policy.
Like various other industries and sectors of the economy of Malaysia, focus was also given towards the development of tourism industry by NEP. Depending on that, a federal form of constitution was adopted by Malaysia. Under this constitution come all the thirteen states and all the federal territory. The central government of Malaysia designed the policies keeping in mind a linear path with regard to their implementation on the state level. But in real terms it seemed like quite difficult to centralize the flow of the process, particularly due to the involvement of each state with own legislative style.
Many of the state participated in the argument to oppose some of the policies of tourism as they feel that goes against the local norms of the state. Institutionalization of the industry of tourism in Malaysia The year 1995, marked the beginning of tourism as a new force of the economic sector of Malaysia with the setting up of the Department of Tourism under the Ministry of Trade of Malaysia. It clearly justifies that the industry of tourism is a late arriver in comparison to any other sector of industries in Malaysia (Tan, W. H 1991).
The involvement of Malaysian government was in a slow pace towards the tourism industry, while most of the developing countries concentrate on the tourism industry to follow the path of growth in the economic front. A sudden fall in the commodity prices inspired Malaysian government to give new life to the industry of tourism, in order to sustain the growth of economy principle objectives of tourism, was included in the tourism master plan of Malaysia, which was the country’s 2nd Malaysia Plan 1971-75, marked the new beginning of the tourism sector as the contributing force for the economic development of Malaysia.
In the year 1972, a dedicated agency was established known as the Tourist Development Corporation by the parliament of Malaysia. It is established with the mission to promote tourism of Malaysia. A new phase is marked with the involvement of the government in this sector. An international bench mark was achieved by the tourism industry in the year 1972 when Malaysia hosted the Pacific Area Travel Association (PATA) 21st conference, which resulted in the gradual increase in the number and percentage of the international tourist into Malaysia.
A rapid increase is noticed also in the number of inbound tourist with the availability of the facility of regional airports and that too of an international standard. In the year 1986, the PATA 35th conference was held at Malaysia, which enhances the tourist attraction of the place in the subsequent years with the highlighting of the facilities and services offered to the delegates (Tan,W. H, 1991). A grand event was organized in the year 1990 on tourism .
The event was named the Visit Malaysia Year 1990. In that very year a record visit of almost seven million international tourists was marked, which is a growth of almost 53. 6% from the previous year. The grand success of this event gave a targeted increase of almost 10% for each coming year. The Ministry of Culture, Arts and Tourism was introduced in the year 1992 to coordinate and plan the tourism activities of the country with close monitoring of the activities too.
The inceptions of the Malaysia Tourism Promotion Board (MTPB), in the same year establish Malaysian tourism as one of the major force of the economic sectors of Malaysia. Malaysia Tourism Promotion Board took the initiative to promote Malaysia as the world tourism destination in order to enhance the socio economic well being of the country of Malaysia. On the other hand the Ministry of Culture, Arts and Tourism were entrusted with the responsibility to formulate the policies for tourism industry of the country.
MTPB get the advantage to promote Malaysia on the international level with about 29 offices on worldwide basis. The domestic destinations were marked and then it was matched with various selected international markets. Keeping this concept of promotion eight destinations were marked with another four additional sites in each subsequent year. The destinations of Sabah, Langkawi, and Sarawak were promoted in high level especially to the European market, especially due to the appeal of the nature along with the sand and beaches.
The development authority of the Langkawi targets the tourist from the Western Europe, area as the tourist from there do possess the capacity to avail and enjoy the facilities of the four to five star hotels located on the Langkawi Island. The above discussion on the Institutionalization of the industry of tourism in Malaysia clearly depicts how the development of the tourism industry take place in different stages to establish the country as one of the attractive destination for the tourist specially on the international level.
Courtney from Study Moose
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