1 Population growth and urban problem in Mumbai, India According to G.Tyler(1994), the more poor people move from rural to urban area the more poverty is becoming urbanized. A lot of cities have damage because of the extreme poverty and social and environment in stead of being centers of commerce and industry. In this article I will discuss the problem of slum clearance in Mumbai, India. I am interested in poor people in urban area. First I will refer about population growth which is related to urban problem. Second, I suggest that slum clearance is not good enough for solving the problem. Third, as a conclusion, I suggest that India government should keep providing various kinds of social services to needed people. Population growth is related to urban problem.
According to Tyler (1994),at least 1 billion people -18% of the world’s population-live in the crowded slums of inner cities and in the vast, mostly illegal squatter settlements or shantytowns that ring the outskirts of most cities in LDCs(Less Developed Country)(bookÖ@,p.26). I agree with Tyler’s explanation. India government has done slum clearance since early 70s when the Slum clearance Act was passed the Mumbai city (artic.Ö@,para.2). In the name of beautification India government did renewal the city. India government has a vision to develop her country like Singapore. I think the slum clearance is very strict for the poor people and the policy does not work well. Because slum clearance only makes other squatted area. People have no way with dwelling in bad habitat environment. In my opinion this is also an ethical issue because people have the rights to live. I believe everyone has the rights to live even they live in slum. Unfortunately, poor people are regarded as a part of bad environment.
So the real problems are in the human rights and the government policy. India Government should face with the roots of problem and provide some policy. So they should keep provide various kinds of social services for needed people. Some private organizations provide health care program and family planning. One of the organization has maternal and child healthcare program. To save poor people they should focus on each person who is involved in serious conditions. They have a lot of need. I think such social service and education are very important to fulfill the needs of poor people. They need clean water, foods, housing etc.
So I suggest that India government should keep welcoming NGO from foreign countries and support their activity. As a conclusion, Population growth is related to urban problem. Slum clearance is not enough for solution of the problem. India government should keep providing various kinds of social services for needed people. To provide social service to those area is a kind of investigation to children for the future. I believe when people change, nation change. This issue should be developed to the quality of life of poor people in slum area.
2 Air Pollution
Construction activities that contribute to air pollution include: land clearing, operation of diesel engines, demolition, burning, and working with toxic materials. All construction sites generate high levels of dust (typically from concrete, cement, wood, stone, silica) and this can carry for large distances over a long period of time. Construction dust is classified as PM10 – particulate matter less than 10 microns in diameter, invisible to the naked eye. Research has shown that PM10 penetrate deeply into the lungs and cause a wide range of health problems including respiratory illness, asthma, bronchitis and even cancer.
Another major source of PM10 on construction sites comes from the diesel engine exhausts of vehicles and heavy equipment. This is known as diesel particulate matter (DPM) and consists of soot, sulphates and silicates, all of which readily combine with other toxins in the atmosphere, increasing the health risks of particle inhalation. Diesel is also responsible for emissions of carbon monoxide, hydrocarbons, nitrogen oxides and carbon dioxide. Noxious vapours from oils, glues, thinners, paints, treated woods, plastics, cleaners and other hazardous chemicals that are widely used on construction sites, also contribute to air pollution.
Sources of water pollution on building sites include: diesel and oil; paint, solvents, cleaners and other harmful chemicals; and construction debris and dirt. When land is cleared it causes soil erosion that leads to silt-bearing run-off and sediment pollution. Silt and soil that runs into natural waterways turns them turbid, which restricts sunlight filtration and destroys aquatic life. Surface water run-off also carries other pollutants from the site, such as diesel and oil, toxic chemicals, and building materials like cement. When these substances get into waterways they poison water life and any animal that drinks from them. Pollutants on construction sites can also soak into the groundwater, a source of human drinking water. Once contaminated, groundwater is much more difficult to treat than surface water.
Construction sites produce a lot of noise, mainly from vehicles, heavy equipment and machinery, but also from people shouting and radios turned up too loud. Excessive noise is not only annoying and distracting, but can lead to hearing loss, high blood pressure, sleep disturbance and extreme stress. Research has shown that high noise levels disturb the natural cycles of animals and reduces their usable habitat.