In this present century, people are becoming widely liberated. This is proven by the increasing number of homosexuals in the community. More and more of these individuals are coming out of their closets and are starting to knock on everyone’s doors to expose themselves. These people have gained significant political and societal drive in the United States. The act of becoming a homosexual is not seen as a sin by many people nowadays. Relationships and activities among homosexuals have been accepted as well as damned all over recorded accounts, depending on the type they took and the customs in which they were present.
Ever since the late 1800’s, a movement has been made to boost visibility, credit and rights for homosexual people. They were given the rights to adopt a child and be parents. Increased rights on being employed, being involved in the service for the military and equal health care access were also implemented for them; Even inter-marriage and civil unions between two persons with the same gender were allowed. In several states in America, quite a lot of bills have been introduced by the politicians who see homosexuality as normal.
They did this to guarantee that the application of homosexuality is a protected right by the regulation incorporated in these bills. These are statements that affect various institutions. Even churches would be obligated to appoint a division of homosexuals with compassion guidance courses to be powerfully urged in a range of work spaces. There is even a legislation that suggests that the state choose the tab for the protection of gay people in lawsuits, while requiring the non gay side to pay out of their own pockets.
Through media and by all means of communication like the television, radio, magazines and newspapers, homosexuals are lecturing their doctrine of open-mindedness, fairness, evenhandedness, and devotion among people all over the world. They do not want to be seen as nonstandard or hazardous. They want approval and they want people to receive them with open and loving arms, being approving of what they are and what they do. But what exactly is homosexuality and are these people born attracted to the same sex?
Homosexuality is defined as of, relating to, or characterized by a tendency to direct sexual desire towards another of the same sex (Webster). A person is said to have a homosexual orientation if he is sexually and emotionally attracted to a person of the same gender. Another name for this can also be same gender attraction. Besides that, this can also be referred to a person’s sense of individual and public distinctiveness. These are based according to attractions, the behaviors that express these, and association with a population of individuals who share them.
The word homosexual is a hybrid of two words from the Greek and the Latin. Homos means same, while the word sexual from Medieval Latin speaks for itself (Krafft-Ebing, 230). Therefore it is connoted to affections and sexual acts between two people of the same sex. The word lesbian is used for female homosexuality, and gay is generally referred for male homosexuality, although it is often used in broader terms which translate to every LGTB (Lesbians Gays Transsexuals and Bisexuals) individuals.
Many questions and arguments have risen as to how homosexuality came about. Psychology was one of the initial disciplines to learn on homosexual courses as an isolated trend. For now, current studies are in the process of proving whether homosexuality is caused by genetics, the environment or some other reasons. I personally believe that homosexuality is not normal, that people are not born attracted to the same sex. The issue about being a homosexual is merely the choice of the person and this choice is influenced by a many overlapping factors.
In the late nineteenth century, homosexuality was considered as a disease It was completely categorized as one by a European sexologist. In 1886, the renowned Richard von Krafft-Ebing listed homosexuality as a mental illness together with two-hundred added case studies of nonstandard sexual practices in his ultimate work named Psychopathia Sexualis (Krafft-Ebing, X). Mr. Krafft-Ebing anticipated that homosexuality was possible due to acquired inversion or congenital inversion (Irvine, 196).
During the 1980’s, an unusual outlook started to outweigh in the psychiatric and medical circles, judging these manners as an indication of a kind of individual with a distinct and fairly steady sexual orientation. Moreover, the World Health Organization added homosexuality as a mental disorder (Wakefield, 373). At the time of the early twentieth century, there was a standard pathological model for homosexuality. In the present days, the accord of medicinal and methodical expert organizations is that homosexuality is not a psychological disease.
By the year 1973, homosexuality was no longer seen as a disorder because it was removed by the American Psychiatric Association (APA) from the section of Sexual Deviancy of the DSM-II, also called the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (Silverstein, 29). The “coming out” is a process in which, at some point in their lives, homosexuals reveal themselves (Coleman, 489). Today, more gay people have come out of their closets than those who are still hiding. This process is has three phases. The first phase is knowing oneself. This is the phase when one chooses.
One decides on whether he/she is to be straight or a homosexual. It is called the internal coming out and is the most important phase. The second phase is having the people around them know that they aren’t straight people. And the third is living openly as a gay person. Choosing to be a homosexual and progressing into one is often a hard and complicated process. Not everyone can be trusted to support a gay’s decision to be one, especially if one was raised by a strict and very religious family. Coming out is openly revealing the sexual orientation of the once closeted individual.
Prominent politicians, Hollywood stars, people in the military, and even church members have come out as admitted homosexuals nowadays. So how did these homosexuals start to turn out as what they have become? A study was made to answer this big question. This study researched on the ways on how man became a homosexual instead on focusing on the factors that made him that way. This involved studying and compiling facts on how a person decides on his gay identity, otherwise known as the first phase of the coming out process.
This is also implicated on studying how a homosexual acts after integrating his sexual and emotional preference. Before the first phase of the coming out process, a sensitization phase first occurs. The young child still has a vague view of his/her sexual preference. Usually at 13-17 years of age, they grow up and begin to experience more interactions with kids of the same and opposite sex. Most homosexual men have also engaged in early sexual activity with the same gender.
They determine what gender they want, and that’s when they come into the first phase (Troiden, 299). Usually, homosexuals feel a sense of difference that becomes a feeling of dissimilarity later in his life. Some children, prior to reaching the age of thirteen, experience a feeling of apartness early in their lives. They feel intimidated by peers, seem to have different interests than others, and feel like they didn’t fit in. They recall feelings like alienation, difference, gender inadequacy, and being excited in the presence of a person with the same sex.
The feelings of gender inadequacy and alienation showed that past social experiences, specifically childhood ones, played a major role since emotionality and genitality are mostly developed in this stage of a human’s life. Therefore, gay identity is extremely adopted by the interpretation of past occurrences that may have indicated potentiality of becoming a homosexual (Troiden, 290). Almost all homosexuals before the age of seventeen start to feel sexually different. After this age, homosexuals begin to dissociate and pass this stage being sure that they are gay (Troiden, 291).
But some still justify that they were only curious and were just experimenting by engaging in homosexual acts and profess being straight. There are many theories related to the organization of gender identity, which is identification of a person if he/she is male or female. These are Biological, Psychodynamic, External, Identity-Construction, and Enculturated-Lens theories. Gender Identity Disorder, as it was appointed in the past in the American Psychological Association’s Diagnostic and Statistical Manual IV, is not a thing that’s new to us. Undeniably, it may be as previous as humanity itself.
The biological theory emphasizes the influence of certain hormones and genes and says that elevated levels of the male hormone testosterone are linked with increased levels of hostility in boys and acts of being tomboys in girls (Finkelstein, 2433). This makes a person to consider the likelihood that a rise in male hormones must happen not only in ample amounts, but also throughout a small window of time to be a source of the gendermap’s masculinization. If there is not enough androgen or male hormone, or if the surge occurs very early or too late, there will only be a partial male imprint on the gendermap.
These disruptions of hormonal levels may arise following a diversity of sources. A fractional listing would contain a disarray in the woman’s endocrine system. This may cause hormone secreting tumors to activate and regular maternal stress. The psychodynamic theory involves psychoanalytic and cognitive-developmental theory. The first one emphasizes internal intuitive conflicts of young ones instead of outside pressures —e. g. concept of Freud’s penis envy and oedipal conflict (Frosch, 1). This focuses on ideas and the result that the unconscious has on the person.
Cognitive development however talks about the stages of mental development as theorized by Lawrence Kohlberg. This states that the cognitive processing of children are responsible for leading them into choosing their gender (Maccoby, 81). The external theories includes the: Socialization or Social Learning Theory, Gender Schema theory and Social Structural or Situational theories that emphasize on the culture’s influences on the individual. Socialization or Social Learning theory proposes that sex typing is the product of a mixture of observational learning and disparity support.
It emphasizes pressure of opposed “learning environments,” particularly of children but at times of adults as well. On how they imitate models and examples they see in civilization and their reaction to incentives for gender suitable manners and condemnation or retribution for gender-inappropriate actions (Akers, 1). The Gender Schema theory combines with cognitive-developmental. These are inner cognitive networks formed by socialization that systematize and direct individual concepts; gender schemas are intellectual networks linked with concepts of masculinity and femininity.
Extremely gender-schematic persons are inclined to put in order a lot of their thoughts, views and perceptions in agreement with gender patterns and symbols. Studies show that by 3 years old, kids have already begun learning the metaphorical or symbolic meanings of gender. They tend to find out a fundamental structure for understanding the nature of the male and female that does not rely on the precise models arising in their surroundings (Sapiro, 83). The Social Structural or Situational theories emphasize constructural constraints on the young and old.
An example is the reality that men and women are in dissimilar and have uneven positions in the societal organization. There is conscious and unconscious discrimination. Men may not be aware that they are discriminating or are being discriminated against (Vasquez, 201). The Identity Construction Theory explains the person’s personal and mindful obligation to a certain self image (Cerulo, 385). And the last is the Enculturated Lens Theory by Sandra Bem. This explains the societal and past situation containing the lenses of sexual category.
There are two types of enculturation phases that are always connected and functioning together: the institutional pre encoding of the person’s daily know-how into the defaulting options, or the traditionally precut grooves, for that exact moment and place which is different for women and men and the program of inherent instructions or metamessages regarding what lenses the society uses to systematize public reality, as well as the idea that the feature between woman and man, mannish and feminine, is tremendously significant (Bem, 139).
Whatever theory an individual adopts, for the majority of children, whose sexual category and gendermap are similar, this naturally goes unobserved. On the other hand, if there is sexual category incongruency, the young person is left puzzled about his or her sex status and starts an enduring, often compelling hunt for resolution of the incongruity. One reason God put people on the face of the earth is for them to reproduce. He commanded us to go forth and multiply. He made male and the female’s reproductive organs to perfectly match each other for reproduction and even for pleasure.
Most animals have sex for reproduction, and they can’t reproduce by mating with the same gender of their kind. That’s why they do otherwise. For gay people to reproduce, they need the help of artificial insemination, a technique that helps infertile men and women have their own children. This is done by insemination of a female by a donor’s sperm (Worrel 923). And for obvious reasons, even the name of this scientific procedure doesn’t seem natural. There are ongoing studies to find out if genes also play a role in causing people to become homosexuals.
In an article of Kennedy Institute of Ethics Journal, it informed the public that a doctor of the Evanston Northwestern Healthcare Institute, Dr. Alan Sanders, began this study in the year 2004. He studied a thousand pairs of gay brothers, straight brothers and their parents. While analyzing his study, he suspected that there is no so called “gay gene” (Davis, 125). There are only a number of genes that can relate with non-genetic factors. Twins have the same genes. So if one of them ends up being gay, the other should also end up being the same.
But a study has shown that only about thirty-eight percent of identical twins both end up being homosexuals (NARTH). More people are interested in this study not just to know the biological factors of being gay, but to also fight against discrimination in lawsuits. For some individuals, sexual orientation is constant and permanent all throughout their life. For other people, sexual orientation may be fluid and transform after a particular time. Whether or not researchers find a “gay gene”, it is still the people’s choice to be or not to be a homosexual. But the people of today believe otherwise.
There are universities offering courses on how to be gay. It’s about homosexuality and initiation. If being a homosexual is a normal thing, would one still need to study how to be gay? Homosexuality, as shown by offering this course, is a learned behavior, it definitely is not natural. To be a homosexual, a person must decide on being one first; then learn the characteristics of being gay. Some were free to choose, while some were pressured to be one. In the past years people desired to change a person’s gender identity. This is where Reparative therapy came in.
this treatment was effective in helping homosexuals become heterosexuals (Spitzer, 403). But many people believed otherwise, and they were wrong. Many disprove of this because it lets the public think that homosexuality is a disorder and because others think it’s harmful and ineffective. I believe that God only made man and woman in His likeness. He didn’t make a person to be a homosexual. If a perfect God wanted to make a male, He certainly wouldn’t make that male to have the character of a female and vice versa. In the book of Genesis, God made man in His own likeness and saw that it was so and was good.
The bible didn’t say that God made man but it turned out to be gay. Certainly not! I also believe that nobody can be a man but be a woman at heart. Deep inside of him, he still has that dominant and innate being of a male. That has been proven why some therapies, like Reparative therapy, works on making a homosexual back to the natural heterosexual being that he/ she should be. So if homosexuality is a choice, then why would a person choose to be one? There are numerous possible answers to this, as stated on this essay, although the real facts aren’t known yet. Many influences on a person may lead to his/her choice of becoming a homosexual.
Moreover, how can something natural be seen as a disease? People that are born male, grow up to be a male and vice versa. They aren’t like animals which would eventually hatch from their eggs and turn out to be something else after they were born. Gay people mustn’t blame God, their parents, or other people that they became that way. Another question arises. Is being a homosexual a sin? Sin has a variety of opinions from every denomination and church all over the world. This depends on many factors. In my opinion, choosing to be straight is the right thing, but when one someone can’t get out of it, it’s not a sin to be one.
Doing things that make one more of a gay is what causes him/her to sin. To end, I will quote four Bible verses that will answer this mind boggling question about homosexuality. 1. “You shall not lie with a male as one lies with a female; it is an abomination. ” (Lev. 18:22) 2. “If there is a man who lies with a male as those who lie with a woman, both of them have committed a detestable act; they shall surely be put to death. Their blood guiltness is upon them. ” (Lev. 20:13) 3. “Or do you not know that the unrighteous shall not inherit the kingdom of God?
Do not be deceived; neither fornicators, nor idolaters, nor adulterers, nor effeminate, nor homosexuals, nor thieves, nor the covetous, nor drunkards, nor revilers, nor swindlers, shall inherit the kingdom of God. ” (1 Cor. 6:9-10) 4. “For this reason God gave them over to degrading passions; for their women exchanged the natural function for that which is unnatural, and in the same way also the men abandoned the natural function of the woman and burned in their desire toward one another, men with men committing indecent acts and receiving in their own persons the due penalty of their error.
And just as they did not see fit to acknowledge God any longer, God gave them over to a depraved mind, to do those things which are not proper. ” (Rom. 1:26-28) Being one isn’t bad, acting and thinking like one is. And being attracted to a person of the same sex is not natural, it is a choice. A chance for people to prove themselves worth of the free
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