Use the information presented in this module along with additional outside research to answer the questions:
1. Describe how applied microbiology is used to improve aspects of life and the environment.
Microbiology is the study of microorganisms (VanMeter, VanMeter, & Hubert, n.d., p.3). These are all of the things not visible to the human eye. With the study of microbiology, it enables us to find things such as viruses and bacteria. This is helpful because sickness and certain outbreaks can be prevented. In turn, this creates a safer more stable environment.
2. Describe how the table of elements is ordered and discuss four common elements in living organisms.
Elements are ordered on the Table by their atomic number. This is also the number of protons in the atomic nucleus. The four most common elements in living oprganisms are Hydrogen, Carbon, Nitrogen, and Oxygen. (VanMeter, VanMeter, & Hubert, n.d., p.20).
3. Describe the pH scale and discuss the importance in living cells and tissues.
The PH scale is summarized by two main categories. Acids release Hydrogen ions while Bases release hydroxyl ions. The higher the hydrogen ion concentration the more acidic the solution. A Neutral PH is considered to be a 7, on a scale from 0 to 14. Acidic is on the low end of the scale while basic is on the high end of the scale. The PH scale is very important in living cells and tissues because everything inside the body has an “optimal PH”. This means that certain reactions cannot occur or are not as effective if the PH isn’t correct. (VanMeter, VanMeter, & Hubert, n.d., p.27-28).
4. List five specific areas for which clinical laboratories are responsible.
Microbiology, Hematology, Urinalysis, Biochemistry, and Immunology. (VanMeter, VanMeter, & Hubert, n.d., p.100).
5. As new chemicals come into a laboratory, what is a good source of information regarding the handling and storage of the substance? Discuss what kind of information it should provide and how that information should be made available to all persons using the facility.
OSHA created a biosafety program. This provides rules and guidelines for handling and storing chemicals in the laboratory. The program contains everything you need to be safe in the lab. It also lays out an exposure plan in case someone were to get something in the lab. (VanMeter, VanMeter, & Hubert, n.d., p.101).
6. Discuss the technique and importance of proper hand washing and describe at least two other types of hand cleaning/sanitizing techniques.
Hands should be washed with soap and warm running water. The should also be washed for 20 seconds paying special attention to the back of the hand, the wrist, between the fingers and under the nail. Rinse well and dry with a single use towel. Always turn the water off with the towel. Aint-bacterial hand sanitizer is also effective. Alcohol can also be used. (VanMeter, VanMeter, & Hubert, n.d., p.100-101).
7. Name five pieces of information provided by the NIOSH Pocket guide to Chemical Hazards found at www.cdc.gov. 1.Water flush immed | If this chemical contacts the skin, immediately flush the contaminated skin with water. If this chemical penetrates the clothing, immediately remove the clothing and flush the skin with water. Get medical attention promptly. | 2.Water flush prompt | If this chemical contacts the skin, flush the contaminated skin with water promptly. If this chemical penetrates the clothing, immediately remove the clothing and flush the skin with water promptly. If irritation persists after washing, get medical attention.
3.Water wash | If this chemical contacts the skin, wash the contaminated skin with water. | 4.Water wash immed | If this chemical contacts this skin, immediately wash the contaminated skin with water. If this chemical penetrates the clothing, immediately remove the clothing and wash the skin with water. If symptoms occur after washing, get medical attention immediately. | The Above information was quoted from (NIOSH Pocket Guide to Chemical, n.d.). 8. Briefly summarize the different Biosafety levels.
Biosafety level 1 deals with microorganisms that are generally not disease causing in healthy humans. These chemicals do not have to be stored in isolation. . (VanMeter, VanMeter, & Hubert, n.d., p.102) Biosafety level 2 pose a moderate risk and should be handled carefully. Limed lab acess is required when handling these microbacteria’s. . (VanMeter, VanMeter, & Hubert, n.d., p.102) Biosafety level 3 include very dangerous agents. These bacteria are potentially lethal. Pre-cautions go as far as, all the windows have to be closed during handling of the chemicals. . (VanMeter, VanMeter, & Hubert, n.d., p.102-3) Biosafety level 4 poses the highest level of danger. Staff members handling these bacteria are specifically trained to do just that. Usually the facility is separate in its own building. . (VanMeter, VanMeter, & Hubert, n.d., p.103)
9. Discuss the use of PPEs in a lab environment.
Personal protective equipment is solely to protect the experimenter. These things include gloves, clothing, and eye protection. It sounds simple but if you are covered then you will not have to worry about infection from dangerous microbacteria. . (VanMeter, VanMeter, & Hubert, n.d., p.108-10)
10. Differentiate the use of a sharps container and a biohazard bag. Sharps containers are for objects that can pierce the skin or cause any break in the skin. Biohazard bags are for everything else you use during an experiment that isn’t sharp, paper towels..ect. These bags are called autoclave bags. .(VanMeter, VanMeter, & Hubert, n.d., p.108-9)
NIOSH Pocket Guide To Chemical Hazards. (n.d.). Retrieved from Center
VanMeter, K. C., VanMeter, W. G., & Hubert, R. J. (n.d.). Origins. In Microbiology for the Healthcare Professional