1. Where and why did Spain establish colonies in North America, and how did native peoples resist colonization? Spain established colonies in Central America, the Caribbean islands, and Mexico to increase their wealth and power. The native people resisted colonization by trying to fight back.
2. How did the Chesapeake colonies support the aims of British mercantilism? The Chesapeake colonies supported British mercantilism with their tobacco crops and the Bay’s rich fisheries. These served as highly valuable to Britain.
3. Why did slavery replace servitude as the dominant labor system in Virginia and Maryland? Through most of the 17th century, the Black population was small. Sometime after 1680, buying a slave for their lifetime was a greater investment than paying for an indentured servant. Lastly, the number of Africans bought by British dealers was up to 20,000 per year. Thus, this transition led slavery to replace servitude.
4. What caused the Beaver Wars and how did the French respond? The Beaver Wars was caused by a series of conflicts fought in 17th century in eastern North America. The French responded by participating in a war with them.
5. Who settled the earliest New England colonies, and why? The Puritans settled the earliest in New England colonies for religious freedom.
6. In what ways were the Mid-Atlantic colonies more diverse than the other colonies of the period? Mid-Atlantic colonies are more diverse because they have many different cultures living in that area. Moreover, diverse groups settled leaving a variety of religions or national origin.
7. Why did Spain establish colonies in Texas and California, and what role did missions play in anchoring the Spanish presence? The Spanish established colonies in Texas because they used it as a prevention of the French. The role it played was as a buffer. Spain settled in California as a last project in North America.
8. How did Louisiana differ from French Canada?
9. What kinds of divisions led to social tensions and conflicts in British North America? Divisions between different countries led to the social tensions. Many of their territories with divided. This later became known as the British North American Act.
10. How did African American culture evolve in the slave community, and what forms did resistance to captivity take? African American culture began to evolve when slaves with actually able to communicate with each other and when the female population went up and it made it possible for them to start families. Then, the combination of their elements of speech, religion and folk ways were developed. Resistance to captivity occurred in songs, key words, and many other creative ways.
Identifications – All answers are worth 5 points.
11. With regards to agriculture, what does the term “monoculture” mean? Monoculture id the cultivation of a single crop (on a farm or area or country).
12. Define the term “celibate”. “Celibate” is a person who abstains from sexual relations.
13. Who was Pope’? John Pope was pope.
14. Give a good working definition of the practice of “mercantilism”. Mercantilism is economic theory that trade generates wealth and is stimulated by the accumulation of profitable balances, which a government should encourage by means of protectionism
15. What does the term “indentured servant” mean? An indentured servant is a person who bounds himself or herself to serve someone for a certain period of time in exchange for something else.
16. What does the term “racism” mean? Racism is hatred or intolerance of another race or other races and cultures
17. What did the term “Counter-Reformation” mean to the Roman Catholic Church? The Counter Reformation is a reformation counteracting a previous reformation.
18. What were the six tribes of the Iroquois League? The six tribes of the Iroquois were The Onondaga Nation, Oneida Nation, Seneca Nation, Tuscarora Nation, Mohawk Nation, and the Cayuga Nation.
19. As part of Calvinist theology, what does the term “predestination” mean? The term predestination was the question of the control God exercises over the world.
20. What is the principle of the “separation of Church and State”? The principle is to maintain a distance in relationship between organized religion and the Nation state.
Who were the Quakers? They were a large group of immigrants that left England for freedom. 21.
22. Who was Metacom? Metacom was a Wampanoag chief who brought different American Indian groups together to fight against the English
23. What is an artisan? A artisan is a skilled trade worker, especially making things by hand.
24. Under slavery, what was the “task system”? A system used during slavery that allowed some slaves to work unsupervised as long as they complete the task within time.
25. What were “Maroon communities”? The Maroon communities were places a runaway slave could escape to.
26. What was the Enlightenment? A period during the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries when European philosophers pondered aspects of education, law, social theory, superstition, and ignorance.
What was the Great Awakening? A American religious movement that began in New England near the mid 1730’s. 27.
28. What did the English consider to be a “balanced constitution”? A balance of power would be considered a balanced constitution.
29. What was “benign or salutary neglect”? “Benign or salutary neglect is when the Americans realized that they did not have to follow English law.
30. What is “The Fandango”? The “Fandango” is a Spanish dance.