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East Asian History

In the year 1943, the allied forces made a Deceleration in Cairo pledging freedom for the Korean peninsula from Japan. The US, China and Great Britain were the main parties involved in this declaration, often known as the ‘Cairo Declaration’. In the Yalta Conference, Roosevelt made a proposal to the USSR leaders for having a four-power leadership of Korea. Although, Stalin took President Roosevelt points into consideration, no formal agreement was reached upon. President Roosevelt proposed that the US, USSR, Great Britain and China would take hold on Korea. Following these talks, the tension between the communist nations and the western nations began to rise. In the Postdam conference in July 1945, Independence was promised for Korea. The US asked…

Distinctive Periods in History

1. Discuss the causes of the Protestant Reformation. Which do you feel are most important? Why? The Protestant Reformation was caused by a number of cumulative factors ranging from socio-political developments during the 1600s to several blatant weaknesses in the Catholic Church. The socio-political factors range from the ongoing European decentralization during that period with the rise of independent nation states and the breakdown of a formerly medieval set-up under the leadership of the Pope.  Meanwhile, the causes for the breakdown of the medieval society were owed to the Black Death caused by the bubonic plague and the Hundred Years’ War between France and England. Another socio-political factor was the rise of the renaissance period wherein there was a renewed…

Asian American history

There are so many Asian American cultural productions, such as import automobiles, fashion, and art. However, the most important cultural production is food because cooking and eating have been the oldest human activities since human evolution started. Spreading of the different cultures’ and races’ food became more like art and fashion, but it still remains a fundamental part of our daily lives. Fashion and art vary in style by their origin, and each of them shows the aspects of their culture very strongly, but not as strongly as their food. Unlike fashion and art, traditional food impacts people’s physical traits. Many countries have their own traditional food, such as China which is well known for its Chow-Mien, Japan for its…

Lucida the Lioness

It was around the time of the 100 years war, the bitter battle between France and England. While the world was obsessed with creating empires there was one empire that existed on a plane beyond us. To silence the voice of lions was the intent of mankind. Many eons ago, the Lion did not roar, he spoke, loud from the mountain tops and filled the world with terror. He breathed fire onto the lands below and warned of the doom of the world should a savior not be found. The word of men assumed that that savior would be a man and did not look amongst women. The answer would come in the land of Lionire, whose king sought a…

Economic History

According to Keynes, recessions and financial crises can be avoided if central banks maintain general equilibrium in the money markets (via monetary policy). It can reduce money supply by selling bonds. It can increase money supply by buying bonds. This increase-decrease in money supply is a general mechanism utilized by central banks to ensure the robustness of the financial market. In short, the aim of the policy is to make the prices of financial assets stable (prevents panic). Keynes, however, argued that monetary policy does not raise the national income. Monetary policy only creates an ‘illusion’ of economic prosperity. Keynes favored the use of fiscal policy in increasing the level of national income because of two major reasons. First, fiscal…

Equity History

Equity was used to refer to the laws that were followed in the English judicial system which supplemented the strict rules that were used on top of the already existing common laws to pass judgments. The conflicts between law and equity can be traced back to the time when England was ruled by kings. At the start of the 14th century, the courts of law in England could only pass sentences to certain cases and disregarded others that according to the system ‘were not suitable’. On top of this, law officials changed the court procedures of listening to claims. Since the legal claims were based on set restrictions, it made the judicial process unfair to the individuals who were denied…

European History 1914-to present

The period that immediately followed the First World War was marked by the autocratic regimes in Austria, Germany and Russia being replaced by republics as they were overthrown. There seemed to be a promise of an era of democracy as the seven states that had all been newly created adopted the republican form of government giving the impression that democracy had finally been found after the First World War. However, this did not last as after only two decades, a form of dictatorship took over most of the democratic European countries. While some countries became communists, others took to fascism which resulted to totalitarian form of government (Gardner, Kleiner & Mamiya, 2005). In totalitarianism individuals had absolutely no freedom in…

European History

The Third Reich represents one of the darkest moments in Germany history. Established during the height of the fascist frenzy which propelled the National Socialist party to power in post-War Germany, the Third Reich and Nazi Germany are terms which are often used synonymously to describe this particularly ominous period. As a totalitarian dictatorship which replaced the Weimer Republic and officially lasted for a dozen years, the Third Reich was established on the supremacy of the fascist political doctrine and the supremacy of the German Aryan race. Seeking to explore the emergence of Nazi political dominance in the wake of the collapse of the Weimer Republic, this question will explore the political evolution of fascism in Germany. Many questions will…

Change & Continuity over Time of Religion in Europe from the 1500-1900

The period between 1500 to 1900 also refers to the time period from the Middle Ages to the modern world. The period witnessed significant strides in state building in England, France, and Spain, where growing bureaucracies levied taxes to finance large-scale warfare and territorial expansion. At the same time encroachment on the longstanding powers of the nobility caused feudal reaction, while the breach with tradition, particularly by creating new taxes in an era plagued by war, famine, and disease, caused peasants to revolt. A number of historical trends emerged to give the period clear definition: the fragmentation of Christianity and growing secularism; pronounced demographic and economic fluctuation; the development of the European state system; and the emergence of a global,…

Patriotic reverence for the history

Patriotic reverence for the history of a nation often does more to impede than toencourage progress History always brings with itself lots of experience. People always learn from their past. Butis relying on the history nation the right path to progress? Does our past always teach us theright lessons? What we do today will be past someday. Does that mean we will always end updoing right if we follow our history. The answer is no. Showing high patriotic reverencecannot always be the right path for a nation’s progress. Relying on history for our current needs would be nothing more than intuition. The situationwe have at our hands can be very different from that experienced in the past. The demandthen becomes…

Important Events in Louisiana History

The State of Louisiana has a colorful and important past unbeknownst to laymen. These events helped shape the picture of its culture and what is the present day United States. In the 18th century, this state was established as a French Colony and within a little over 30 years, was passed on to the Spanish after the French-Indian War. Control of Louisiana allowed ships from Europe or Mexico to dock from the ocean and move inland through the Mississippi river. The influence of the empires at the time, are still carried over to today. This state recognizes no “official language” but some residents speak French and Spanish. Aside from this, most of the population is made up of Christians due…

Post-WWII History

After World War II, the United States focused on putting an end to Communism. The economic climate of the immediate postwar years was conducive to the rise of the political left. The detrimental effects of depression and global war generated popular demands for widespread social, political and economic reforms. Furthermore, wartime controls made ordinary citizens believe that economic planning was the best way to restore economic growth and equity (Painter, 1999). The United States, however, underwent a shift to the right. Republican domination of both houses of Congress after the 1946 midterm elections led to the strengthening of conservative opposition to the New Deal. Despite this accomplishment, the Republicans were unable to contain the main achievements of the New Deal…

Shaping American History

As they say there is nothing constant but change. While there is nothing that can be added to this truism, one can argue that although American society is constantly evolving, the changes that are happening in the 21st century are simply the byproduct of the events that transpired in the past, particularly after World War II. These pivotal decades after the Second World War covers the latter part of the 20th century and these five important periods in modern US history are popularly known by their epithets: the 50s, 60s, 70s, 80, and 90s. The following pages will show the pivotal events that occurred within each decade that consequently shaped American history. In the Aftermath of the War The Second…

In the Devil’s Snare

There have been several interpretations of the Salem Witchcraft Crisis of 1692. Like every issue that has come up, everyone has their own take on it. Mary Beth Norton chose to lay out her version of the witchcraft trials in her book, In the Devil’s Snare. It is a tremendously ambitious book. Throughout the book, Norton is trying to lay out connections between the experiences of settlers in Maine, the accusations of the afflicted in Salem, and the actions and decisions of the colony leaders. I’ll admit, I don’t know much about the Salem Witchcraft Trials, if anything at all. I had the choice of reading The Crucible in high school, but I turned it down and chose to read…

The Madness of John Brown

Historians are not the only ones that can elucidate history. History is a extensive puzzle that can be solved by anyone who has an educated diploma on certain subjects. Historians are the main disposition to solve the uncertainty of history with their useful, quality skills of making theories to conjoin loose ends of history, motivation of repeated research, and their undying love to learn new history, but a psychologist can solve history too with their forte. Even though it may seem absurd to believe that this occupation who assesses a man’s personality to solve problems; a psychologist can solve an dead man’s prospective in life. A letter is a common communication device in the old days and can be read…

Understanding European history

Although experiencing a period of expanding intellectual and geographical horizons, European history in the late sixteenth and early seventeenth centuries witnessed, on the whole, a profoundly intolerant age. To clarify our opinion, we must first introduce European history under the literary history of this age. Here, we will display our understanding of European history in the late sixteenth and early seventeenth centuries, the one by Brecht or the one by Montaigne as two famous authors of the Renaissance age. Herr Bertolt Brecht in relation to European drama and theatre Anyone who was anyone in Germany and France wrote historical dramas. It is therefore understandable that the poets of inner conflicts, the prophets of the Byronic hero, also emerged as writers…

The History of Efforts Towards Islam Ecumenism

The discord between the Shia and Sunni has a long and bloody history. The split between these sects was a product of a political conflict which was exaggerated, if not baseless. It allowed the proliferation of wrongful assumptions which have been exploited and taken out of context. For example, the Shiites believe that Sunnis are enemies of the Ahl-e Bayt,the family of the prophet (Mazhari). On the other hand, the Sunnis believe that the Shiites regard the present day Quran has been tampered with (Mazhari) and that they abuse the companions of the prophet. While is true that there are Shiites who openly abuse the companions of the prophets, there number is relatively small. Also, Sunni scholars quote arguments from…

The Biggest Bill in History and The Lessons of 193

Two articles on the current economic crisis—Pubic Debt: The Biggest Bill in History (The Economist, June 11, 2009) and The Lessons of 1937 (The Economist, June 18, 2009) both list down various points and issues that liken today’s financial crisis to that of the Great Depression of the 1930’s. Upon introduction, Romer writes that “policymakers must learn from the errors that prolonged the Depression (par. 1)”, while Ryder contrasts between “the right and wrong ways to deal with the rich world’s fiscal mess (par. 1). ” The Lessons of 1937 In a guest article, Presidential Economic Adviser Christina Romer describes the barriers that economic recovery had to hurdle in the late 1930’s. She credits this downturn to the “unfortunate, and…

Ibrahim Pasha

Ibrahim Pasha makes the sculpturer he found make a sculpture of himself. Kanuni gets very angry with Ibrahim pahsa because of this disrespect of him and doesn’t share his feelings about this with anyone. But later on he shares his feelings with Ibrahim pahsa. As a result of this , he wants to resign since he is afraid of Kanuni’s anger. Then, Ibrahim pahsa comes back to the palace to pick his belongings from his servants. Ibrahim Pasha’s wife Hatice Sultan asks why he is going, whether he will come back to the palace or not. But he doesn’t want to say anything about the situation despite of her insists then he leaves. Hatice Sultan has a nightmare, her nightmare…

Justinian’s Military Battles

Justinian carried on the unending war against the Persians with mixed success. His general Belisarius lost a battle at first in 528, then completely routed the Persians at Daras, near Nisibis (June, 530); but on 19 April, 531, the Romans were defeated near Callinicum on the Euphrates; in September a peace was arranged on fairly equal terms. The emperor then conceived the plan of reconquering Africa and Italy, lost to the empire by the Vandal and Gothic invasions. In 533 a fleet of five hundred ships set sail for Africa under Belisarius. In two battles the Romans annihilated the Vandal kingdom, took the king, Gelimer, prisoner to Constantinople, and re-estabished the authority of Caesar in Africa. In 535 Belisarius sailed…

George Santayana

George Santayana noted that those who do not remember their own history are doomed to repeat it. There is an extreme truth in the observation and leaders and nations who have not learnt from the mistakes faced ramification down the ages. It can be stated that history is a subject that acts as a reference point to the future generations and asks them to learn from the mistakes committed earlier. In this context, it is a curious notion to point out that the United States was formed from the ashes of British colonial attitudes in the America. The American citizen fought against the British rule through revolution in order to gain freedom and autonomy. The irony of history is that…

Defining Historiography

Historians do not always agree about how to interpret the events and people that they study; this leads to multiple explanations, which at times, are diametrically opposed to each other. As students progress into upper-level courses in the Department of History, they must move from the mastery of facts and analysis of primary sources encouraged by lower-level courses to a richer and deeper understanding of how history is written and the fact that events and ideas are open to interpretation. Within History 420 (Readings in History), students then move into another level of explanation, where they read intensively on a topic and provide their own historiographical explanations for a series of events/ideas. Therefore, historiography can be described as “the history…

Gettysburg: Movie and History

The American Civil War has captured the imagination and the hopes and fears of the American people. It is the only major war fought within the borders of the United States. It was a bloody war fought during the time of President Lincoln, considered as the greatest President of the US. Gettysburg is the historical landmark where the result of the Civil War was decided. The Gettysburg movie was based on Michael Shaara’s novel “The Killer Angels. ” It follows the events of the Battle of Gettysburg, which decided the turnout of the American Civil War. Ronald F. Maxwell directed the film. Gettysburg film is an important movie in that the National Park Service allowed, for the first time, a…

Galveston: A History and a Guide

Galveston: A History and a Guide is primary a reading that introduces the history of this Texan territory as well as to how that particular history affect the said area’s present status. It also correlates it to the direct effect of the said history towards the entire American society today. Likely, the cultures and traditions of the said area in Texas had been clearly shown though this reading in an aim of bringing Texas towards the others who may have never known it yet. A clear picturesque of the Galveston is hosted through this reading through the use of pictures, maps and other overwhelmingly descriptive phrases that aim to make a connection between people who know the place and all…

Fiction as History

He was known as “Gabo” to the people living in Colombia and to those who knew him by his reputation. He was not only a short-story writer, a novelist and a screenwriter by profession for he was also a journalist—these were only among the many things which gave him the honor as among the famous writers of Latin America and one of the most significant 20th century authors. At the age of 65, Gabriel Garcia Marquez was given the Nobel Prize in Literature in 1982: the product of the combination of an early life largely influenced by his grandfather and a life lived through the ways and means of journalism after quitting law school (Williams, p. 135). Gabo is considered…

French History: Belle Époque

Belle Epoque means beautiful era in French. This is an apt description of what took place during the late 1800s up until the start of the First World War. This period of European history is characterized by political stability, peace between major European nations and a flourishing in almost all aspects of society. This modern golden age of Europe started with the peace following the Franco-Prussian war. (Rudorff) Although tensions were still present between rival countries like France and Germany, the improvement of international relations helped conclude treaties and summits. Most notable of these were the Congress of Berlin in 1878 by which the major countries of Europe met to discuss the future of the Balkan and Ottoman states, and…

Partition of the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth

The modern republics of Poland and Lithuania had been once been a single, strong nation known as the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth. This commonwealth was established in 1569. Although there were other states in the commonwealth, none of them was as powerful as Poland. The nation was on the brink of success when the rest of Europe was ravaging in the famous thirty years war between 1618 and 1648. The Commonwealth noblemen had no desire to get involved in these wars and they were able defend the country against external attacks from the Germans, Russians and the Ottoman Turks (TLK). However, the commonwealth’s supremacy and stability did not last for long and there already were clear signs of decline by the mid…

Music History

Music, as they say, is a universal language. Unlike dialects, music can be understood by many sans, the lyrics spoken in a different country. The simple humming of a child, done in mostly minor chords, can make everyone feel a little emotional or sad. A happy song filled with trumpets, saxophones and lively guitar tabs can make people excited and get them all to dance. Music can unite people regardless of their age, gender and race, which is why it is considered a universal language. Through Those Years The history of music dates back before the 1800s, but that is only to put a legal timeline to the evolution of music. Since music is universal, it is then safe to…

History Is About the Past

History is the analysis of and interpretation of the human past that enables us to study continuity and change over time and space. Education on the other hand is about the present and concerned with improving the present individuals by appropriate studies. This relative difference between history and education raises the problem of whether history should have a place as curriculum discipline in modern Malawi. History entails a research, a narrative or an account that is commonly related to person, institution or place. The society of Malawi has people, institution as well as places that are historical and therefore to forgo the study of these things will bar the citizens to appreciate the social, cultural, political and economic events or…

Wolsey’s Foreign Policy

On one hand Thomas Wolsey’s foreign policy from 1515-29 was successful because he managed to get most of Europe to agree on perpetual peace which had previously been very difficult. This was what Wolsey’s Foreign policy was all about; acting as a mediator between other countries and gaining respect and prestige so this was a great success. In 1518 Wolsey hosted a great conference in London which representatives of the majority of European powers, including Spain and the Holy Roman Emperor, attended and agreed to peace in Europe. Furthermore with the signing of the Treaty by the Pope London became the centre of Christian Europe and meant Wolsey gained support from the Pope, resulting in future ambitions to become Pope,…