Herzberg’s Two Factor theory (Motivator-Hygiene) suggested that the factors involved in producing job satisfaction and motivation are separate and distinct from the factors that lead to job dissatisfaction. (Herzberg, 1987) In 1959, Frederick Herzberg found that people had two essential needs in life. 1. The human’s need as an animal to avoid pain
2. The human’s need to grow psychologically
And from the two founding, Herzberg has come up with a two factor theory or is also known as Motivator-Hygiene theory that has been a stepping stone for motivation in the workplace.
Herzberg interviewed 203 engineers and accountants. A survey has been done to identify how they feel about their jobs. They were asked to remember back the time when they felt really good at their job and the feelings that associated during that time. And later, they were also asked to recall a time when they felt really bad towards the job and the feelings that associated with it. These results led to two categories Job Satisfiers Job Dissatisfiers.
* Motivator Factors (Job Satisfiers)
Factors that create positive feelings. These included things such as achievement, responsibility, growth in workplace and recognition. * Hygiene Factors (Job Dissatisfiers) Factors that are related to work context and environment. These includes company policy, administration, job security, salary and work conditions. The theory states that if the motivator factors are present in conjunction with hygiene factors then the job will be satisfying. If the hygiene factors are the only present factors, then the job will be in a neutral state.
Employees are not dissatisfied and they have average performance. If the hygiene factors are not present then the job becomes dissatisfying, with or without motivators. Even though hygiene factors do not lead to extra work they are needed as building blocks to start productivity. Therefore, in order move beyond this level, the motivator factors are needed.
Herzberg, F.I. (1987), “One more time: How do you motivate employees?” Harvard Business Review, Vol.65 (5), pp.109 – 120 Herzberg, F., Maunser, B. and Snyderman, B. (1959), The Motivation to Work, John Wiley and Sons Inc., New York, NY