1. Health Education
2. Five Key Areas in Health Promotion and Education
3. Five Health Promotion Approach
a. Medical Approach
b. Behavior Change Approaches
c. Educational approach
d. In Client-Centered Approach
e. Societal Change Approach
4. Healthy Lifestyle
b. How to promote a healthy lifestyle?
5. Advocacy for Health R.A. 9163
1. Are you healthy? Why?
2. How do you define a healthy person?
3. Have you been sent to the doctor or hospitalized?
1. Diagram of a Healthy Person
Ask your students to bring the following material: white cartolina, pencils, coloring pen, scissors and glue Ask your student to draw and image of a healthy person and present it in the class Identify a symbolic picture of your answers to the questions above. Draw a coat of arms using all the
symbolic picture of your answers as elements.
Lecture: Health Education
1. Health Education
1. The World Health Organization in 1948 defined health as:
a. A state of complete physical, social and mental well-being, and not merely the absence of disease or infirmity. b. Within the context of health promotion, health has been considered less as an abstract state and more as a means to an end which can be expressed in functional terms as a resource which permits people to lead an individually, socially and economically productive life. Health is a resource for everyday life, not the object of living. It is a positive concept emphasizing social and personal resources as well as physical capabilities.1 Health for All
1. It is the attainment by all the people of the world of a level of health that will permit them to lead a socially and economically productive life.2 Health promotion
1. Is the process of enabling people to increase control over, and to improve their health.3 2. Health Promotion is the process of enabling people by strengthening their skills and capabilities as well as changing their social, environmental and economic condition.4 Public health
1. It is science and art of promoting health, preventing disease, and prolonging life through the organized efforts of society. a. It is a social and political concept aimed at the improving health, prolonging life and improving the quality of life not just for a single individual but among whole populations through health promotion, disease prevention and other forms of health intervention.5 Health education
1. Health education comprises consciously constructed opportunities for learning how to promote individual and public health. It involves activities designed to improve health literacy, including improving knowledge, and developing life skills which are conducive to individual and community
2. Five Key Areas in Health Promotion and Education
a. In the 21st century the Jakarta Declaration of the World Health Organizations (WHO) identifies five priorities in health promotion and education: Promote social responsibility for health
Increase investments for health development
Expand partnerships for health promotion
Increase community capacity and empower the individual
Secure an infrastructure for health promotion
3. Five Health Promotion Approach
a. Various models of health promotion and health education are useful analytical tool, which can help clarify goals and values of health promotion. A framework consisting of five approaches to health promotion, and demonstrate the values inherent in their respective approaches.7 Medical Approach
1. the freedom from disease and disability as defined by medical, such as infectious diseases, cancer and heart disease 2. It involves medicine to prevent or alleviate pain, perhaps with persuasive and paternalistic methods. 3. It gives the importance of preventive medical measures, and responsibilities of the medical profession to make sure that patients adhere to recommended procedures. Behavior Change Approaches
1. To change community attitudes and individual behavior, so they took this healthy lifestyle. Educational approach
1. To provide information and ensure knowledge and understanding of the matter of health. Information about health is presented, and 2. People are helped to explore the values and attitudes, and make their own decisions. 3. Assistance in implementing the decisions and adopt new health practices can also be offered by school health education programs. In Client-Centered Approach
1. This approach is to work with clients to help them identify what they want
to know and do, and make their own decisions and choices according to their interests and values. 2. Self empowered client is seen as central to this goal.
Societal Change Approach
1. to make changes in the physical environment, social and economic development, in order to make it more conducive to a healthy state
4. Healthy Lifestyle
According to the World Health Organization (WHO), Health not just defined as the absence of disease it is a state of complete physical, mental, and social well-being. Interestingly enough Healthy lifestyle then are the steps, actions and strategies one puts in place to achieve optimum and maximum health. It is about making smart and informed decision in maintaining our health8 b. How to promote a healthy lifestyle?9
Balanced Diet – the Motto program initiated by Prof. Poerwo Soedarmo in 1950, the father of Nutrition Indonesia suggest the following: 1. Eat a variety of foods
2. Eat foods to meet energy coverage
3. Eat foods carbohydrate source half of their energy needs
4. Limit your intake of fats and oils up to a quarter of the energy adequacy 5. Use iodized salt
6. Eat food sources of iron
7. Give only to infants only breast milk until the age of four months and add the solids after 8. Always eat breakfast
9. Drink water that is safe and adequate amount
10. Make regular physical activity
11. Avoid alcoholic beverages
12. Eat foods that are safe for health
13. Read labels on packaged foods
Pattern break – people are too busy and stressed by their workload, domestic problem and even school requirements and activities and so there is n time
to rest. 1. The body desperately needs sleep. If you are only able to gain time for 3-4 hours at night, try to find extra time and complete the rest 2. Rest doesn’t mean sleep, if you can relax your body and your mind until you feel completely relaxed. 3. Do breathing exercises, a few minutes of meditation is very meaningful to all your organs. Exercise – it keeps your body at its peak and fit
1. Fitness is associated with the following:
a. Our bodies are strong
b. Allows the growth of a healthy soul
c. Enhance the immune defense system and us. By itself capable ward off various diseases d. Maintain flexibility, endurance and strength, which in turn will encourage us remain active with high mobility e. Reduce and avoid stress
f. Look better, feel better and think better
2. Sports activities maintains our body in a fit condition
3. At least thirty-minutes of continuous walk or jog
4. Gym and Fitness activities is also an option to make your body Free from dangerous addictive substances
1. Be educated and learn the dangers of drugs (narcotics, drugs, and addictive substances) and alcoholic beverages Balancing spirituality
1. To be able to realize a balance spirituality will help you behave or think and feel with more compassion and so there is less negative emotion that will stress your mind and your soul. 2. Efforts that can be done alone could be providing a special time for a break from all the busyness and brings you to the tranquility and relief like when you are attending the mass, prayer or meditation. 5. Advocacy for Health
An over-all design for health promotion and education which is a combination of individual and social actions designed to gain political commitment, policy support, social acceptance and systems support for a particular health goal or program.10 b. How can we help in Health Promotion and Education?
Create living conditions which are conducive to health and the achievement of healthy lifestyles. The use of the mass media and available multi-media in educating our community of the current and updated health policies of the government Direct political lobbying to policy makers
Community Mobilization through, coalitions of interest around defined issues.
6. HIV and AIDS
a. Definition of Terms
HIV – It stands for Human Immunodeficiency Virus. Unlike a common cold or flu virus that stays in the body only for a few days when a person becomes infected with HIV, the person becomes “HIV positive” for a lifetime. The HIV virus would gradually infect and kills white blood cells called CD4 lymphocytes (or “T cells”) which make the body unable to fight off certain kinds of infections and cancers. AIDS – It stands for Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome and is caused by HIV. In simple terms, people treat AIDS as advanced HIV disease. The immunity system of a person with AIDS is weakened by HIV that the person will get sick easily and find it difficult to recover from such simple diseases.
b. What are the symptoms of HIV infection or AIDS
The first symptoms of HIV infection might resemble symptoms of common cold or flu viruses. Other early symptoms of early infection are also similar to other sexually transmitted diseases (STD) and other infections like hepatitis and tuberculosis. Those who do have symptoms generally experience fever, fatigue, and, often, rash. Yet other HIV infected persons do not exhibit any of the symptoms above, as such, the only way to confirm is to test the presence of HIV antibodies.
c. How do I get HIV?
If you are exposed to the body fluids of a person containing HIV which includes: 1. Blood (including menstrual blood)
2. Semen and possibly pre-seminal fluid (“pre-cum”)
3. Vaginal secretion
4. Breast milk
Three of the four body fluids that contain HIV are transferable during sexual intercourse, thus unsafe sex and promiscuity is the leading cause of being infected with HIV. Other ways that HIV can be transmitted:
1. Sharing needles when shooting drugs
2. Home tattooing and body piercing
3. Accidental needle sticks
4. Blood transfusions
False ideas on the transfer of HIV from an infected person:
1. Saliva, tears, sweat, feces, or urine
5. Shaking hands
6. Insect bites
7. Living in the same house with someone who has HIV
8. Sharing showers or toilets with someone with HIV
d. How should I prevent being infected with HIV?
Keeping a strong moral foundation and spirituality to guide youth and individuals away from engaging in unsafe sex and promiscuity Avoid or do not try to get a tattoo or body pierce
Always make sure that syringe used on you for medical purposes are sanitized and new Always make sure that the blood transfused or donated are HIV free
e. Is there a cure?
Up to this time, there is no cure for HIV.
All drugs being tested in advanced pharmaceutical firms around the world had yet to discover a cure to the illness. Drug therapy only prolonged and improve the quality of life of people infected with HIV.
f. What are sexually transmitted disease ad its relation to HIV? HIV is one of the sexually transmitted diseases from unsafe, immoral sex and promiscuity. Other sexually transmitted diseases includes:11 1. Chlamydia – Is a common sexually transmitted disease (STD) caused by Chlamydia trachomatis, bacteria that can damage a woman’s reproductive organs like infertility, and can cause foul discharge from the penis of an infected patient. 2. Trichomoniasis (“Trich”) – it has no symptoms but may cause unusual genital discharge for both men and women. The disease can also increase a person’s risk of acquiring HIV and pregnant women can deliver premature, low birth weight babies. 3. Gonorrhea – the disease damages not just the reproductive organ of the infected person but can affect the anus, eyes, mouth, genitals, or throat.
4. Human papilloma virus (HPV) (“Warts”) – One silent killer among the list of sexually transmitted diseases for it is asymptomatic, unrecognized, or subclinical and yet a leading cause of cervical cancers among women. 5. Genital herpes – like HIV there is no cure for Herpes and at an early stage it doesn’t exhibit symptoms to an infected person. The swollen genital may not be enough to make sure you are inflicted with herpes, a laboratory test is needed to validate the symptoms. 6. Syphilis – one of the most common and easily diagnose STD is Syphilis and is easy to cure in its early stages. Symptoms include a firm, round, small, and painless sore on the genitals, anus, or mouth, or a rash on the body, especially on the palms of the hands or the soles of the feet. 7. Hepatitis B virus (HBV) – Hepatitis could easily be transferred from an infected person to his/her partner thru sexual intercourse.
If you have ever had an STD, you need to test yourself for HIV infection, for the unsafe sex might have exposed you to HIV as well.
g. Official Statistics of HIV in the Philippines (to be updated) According to the official statistics of University of California, California, U.S.A. as of 2009 there is an increase in the incidence of HIV infection and AIDS victim in the Philippines.12 General HIV/AIDS
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