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Health Module 1st Quarter Essay

Gender and Human Sexuality

At the end of the quarter, you should be able to

1. discuss sexuality as an important component of one’s personality. 2. explain the importance and dimensions of human sexuality. 3. analyze the factors that affect one’s attitudes and practices related to sexuality. 4. assess personal health attitudes that may influence sexual behaviour. 5. relates the importance of sexuality to family health.

6. discuss the signs, symptoms, and effects of sexually transmitted infections (STIs), such as Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) Infection and Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS). 7. enumerate steps in the prevention and control of STIs.

8. analyze why abstinence is the most effective method for the prevention of HIV and AIDS and other STIs. 9. follow government policies in the prevention and control of HIV and AIDS (RA 8504 or Philippine AIDS Prevention and Control Act). 10. explain other government efforts in ensuring a clean blood supply to prevent issues and problems related to sexuality (RA 7719 or Blood Services Act of 1994). 11. apply decision-making skills in managing sexually-related issues.

Are you ready?
You may first consider doing some activities that will brighten you up while expressing your knowledge about sexuality as an important component of one’s personality.

A. DIRECTIONS: How much do you know about gender and human sexuality? Find out by answering the following questions. Write your answers in your activity notebook. 1. What term defines a man or a woman based on biological characteristics? a. sex

b. gender
c. sexuality
d. androgyny
2. Which of the following illustrates gender?
a. Miguel loves to cook.
b. Marco does not cry in public.
c. Hazel has a positive body image.
d. Ahmed is attracted to Felicity.
3. What do you call the sets of activities that society considers as appropriate for men and women? a. gender role
b. gender identity
c. gender equality
d. gender sensitivity
4. Why is it important to understand human sexuality?
a. We will all be mature adults.
b. We have similar sexuality issues.
c. There is a specific age for developing one’s sexuality. d. It will help us build a better relationship with ourselves and others. 5. Which characterizes a good decision?
a. Easy to make
b. Makes your friends happy
c. One that your teacher told you to make
d. Arrived at after a thoughtful consideration of consequence/s

B. DIRECTIONS: Read the following statements. Analyze your personal stand on each item. Write a short explanation why you agree or disagree with it.

1. Teaching is a job for women.
2. Men have no right to cry in public.
3. Both men and women can be police officers.
4. It is the responsibility of both parents to take care of their children. 5. Both the father and the mother should share in meeting the financial needs of the family.

C. DIRECTION: Before you start studying the next lesson on human sexuality, you are going to answer the self-inventory test about STI and HIV/AIDS.

How familiar are you with STIs HIV AIDS?
1. I have never heard of them or I have heard of them but don’t know what they are. 2. I have some idea what they are, but don’t know why or how they happen. 3. I have a clear idea what they are, but haven’t discussed them. 4. I can explain what they are and how do they occur what they do that may affect family life.

Have you made a personal health plan on how to protect yourself from risky sexual behaviour? 1. I have neither planned nor thought about it.
2. I have planned but not thought about it.
3. I have planned but not practiced it.
4. I have both planned and practiced it.

D. DIRECTIONS: For each of the following topic, place a check mark in the cell if it describes your experience.

Topic/Concept
Have read it
Have heard it
Have seen a TV or movie production
Have written a report paper on it
STIs HIV/AIDS

Abstinence

Refusal Skill

Blood donation/transfusion

E. DIRECTIONS: Fact or Fiction: Are the following statements true or false? Write true or false on the space before the number in order to find out your knowledge in sexually transmitted infections particularly HIV/AIDS. When you finish this module, you will have the opportunity to plan for yourself on how to avoid being infected with HIV/AIDS and live a healthy lifestyle in order to have a healthy relationship with your family. 1. A person can acquire HIV/AIDS from using intravenous syringe used by the infected person 2. Most sexually transmitted infections can be treated and cured without medical attention. 3. If an HIV/AIDS woman gives a normal birth to a child, her child may have a greater chance of being infected too. 4. A person always knows when he or she has a sexually transmitted infection. 5. People who get sexually transmitted infections have a lot of sex partners. 6. All types of sexually transmitted disease can be cured.

7. Parental consent is needed before you are treated for a sexually transmitted disease if you are under 18 years of age 8. You can have no symptoms, yet be infected with a sexually transmitted disease and be able to pass it on to someone else. You can get several sexually transmitted diseases at one time.

Lesson 1 – Gender and Human Sexuality

At the end of the lesson, you should be able to do the following:

1. discuss sexuality as an important component of one’s personality. 2. explain the importance and dimensions of human sexuality. 3. analyze the factors that affect one’s attitudes and practices related to sexuality. 4. assess personal health attitudes that may influence sexual behaviour. 5. relates the importance of sexuality to family health.

LEARNING GOALS AND TARGETS

Write your targets on what you expect to learn after reading and
accomplishing this learning material.

Lesson 1
Gender and Human Sexuality

Part I. WHAT TO KNOW

Sexuality involves the physical, mental, social, emotional, and

ethical dimensions of one’s personality.

ACTIVITY # 1

Here is someone who wrote about herself in a poem. Read and analyze how the author wanted to express herself.

Sexuality means you have to be aware of yourself better. As you grow older, you will experience a range of social, emotional, and physical changes. As these occur, you need an intensive knowledge on how to deal with your attitudes and behaviour.

ACTIVITY # 2
Graffiti You!

On a half-size cartolina, write quotations, sayings, slogans, and so on that will describe and reveal your likes, passions, and aspects of your personality. After sharing this in class, you can post it on your bedroom walls and be inspired! A sample has been done below.

Sexuality can be best understood through the help
of the people around you.

ACTIVITY # 3

How I See Myself – How Others See Me

Listed below are characteristics which may or may not represent you. Using the icon at the left side, see if you can rate yourself. After you are done, fold the paper in half and ask a classmate to rate you.

Extrovert _____
Selfish ____
Confident _____
Aggressive ____
Shy _____
Attractive _____
Good listener ____
Approachable ____
Liked _____
Fun ____
Sincere ____
Irresponsible ____
Kind _____
Dependable ____
Other/s: ______________________
________________________

Extrovert _____
Selfish ____
Confident _____
Aggressive ____
Shy _____
Attractive _____
Good listener ____
Approachable ____
Liked _____
Fun ____
Sincere ____
Irresponsible ____
Kind _____
Dependable ____
Other/s: ______________________
________________________

Extrovert ______
Selfish ______
Confident ______
Aggressive ______
Shy ______
Attractive ______
Good listener ______
Approachable ______
Liked ______
Fun ______
Sincere ______
Irresponsible ______
Kind ______
Dependable ______
Other/s: ________________________
________________________

After accomplishing this task, compare your response with the answers of your classmates regarding your characteristics. Are they the same? Do your classmates see you as you see yourself? Reflect on this matter.

Healthy sexuality encompasses the following characteristics:

ACTIVITY # 4
Puzzle-Puzzle
Fill up the pieces with the words/phrases hat describe your personality. Afterwards, fix the puzzle.

What figure have you formed?
What picture do you see that comprise the individual’s personality? What do you think will happen if you lack any of these pieces?

Below is a diagram showing health attitudes that can influence sexual behaviour. Which of these do you possess?

Levelling Off

Please read and analyze the following key terms.

ACTIVITY # 5

Gender Assumptions

1. giving birth
2. making a living
3. fixing the broken faucet
4. doing household chores
5. helping the children with their homework

ACTIVITY # 6

Write the changes that you expect as you mature from a boy/girl to a man/woman. Copy the example figure below and write your own figure in your activity notebook.

ACTIVITY # 7

Society Says
In your activity notebook, copy the table as shown below and write words or phrases that you associate with the words masculine and feminine.

GENDER ROLES
MASCULINE
Example: breadwinner

FEMININE
Example: babysitter

The aim of education for human sexuality is to develop in a boy the characteristics of the personality belonging to his sex, and in a girl the characteristic of her own sex, thus turning a boy into a mature man and a girl into a mature woman,

Using Life Skills to Improve Sexual Health

The life skills that are mentioned below will give you the tools to deal with problems both big and small.

Assessing your Health means evaluating your well-being periodically. This includes your sexuality. Figure out what you can do to improve your health if it is not as good as it can be.

Making Good Decisions means making choices that are healthy and responsible. You must have the courage to make difficult decisions and stick to them.

Communicating Effectively. Communication skills help you avoid misunderstanding by expressing your feelings in a healthy way. This means if you listen to what people say, they will want to listen to you as well.

Practicing Wellness can be accomplished through information about good sexuality.

Setting Goals or aiming for something that will give you a sense of accomplishment. Just be sure to be realistic with your target goal.

Refusal Skill is a way to say no to something that you don’t want to do. This skill requires practice. But first, you must feel strongly about what things you want to avoid.

Evaluating Media Messages is being able to judge the worth of media messages. It is a big challenge knowing that most media messages are very convincing

ACTIVITY # 8

Give an example of a situation for each of the life skills learned. Explain how you will use each skill in these situations? Write you answer in your activity notebook.

Which of the life skills do you feel will be the easiest one for you to use? Which is the most difficult to use? Explain your answer.

ACTIVITY # 9

Making Good Decisions

In your activity notebook, label the page with the letters D E C I D E vertically. Use the six steps in decision making in going through this activity.

1. Your classmates are going to a party this weekend, this is the first time that you are asked to attend by a friend but then you discern that your parents will not approve it. You don’t want to make your friends angry by not going, but you also don’t want to get in trouble with your parents. Determine what decision you should make.

2. One of your closest friends tells his/her problem and asks for your support. He got his girlfriend pregnant / she got pregnant. How can you show your support and stand firm with the morals that having children should be the choice of matured individuals under the blessing of marriage?

The following guide questions may help you decide.
Is it safe?
Is it legal?
Is it healthful?
Does it show respect for me and others?
Does it follow norms and standards of society?

Part II. WHAT TO PROCESS

ACTIVITY # 10

Follow the instructions below to help you complete the poem “I Am” and make it a poem about you. Write this in a whole sheet of paper. Post it in the display area of the classroom. I Am
Line 1:I am (write your name).

Line 2:I am the child of (write the full names of your parents). Line 3:I am the grandchild of (write the full names of your four grandparents). Line 4:I am the sibling of (write the first names of your brothers and sisters, if any). Line 5:I am the friend of (write the names of a few friends). Line 6:I am (write three descriptive words that describe you). Line 7:I am a (write something that you do well – for example, I am a volleyball player). Line 8:I am a resident of (write the name of the barangay and the city in which you live). Line 9:I am (write your citizenship).

ACTIVITY # 11

Dealing with People

We all encounter people in our lives. Here are some descriptions of people. In your activity notebook, jot down some positive ways of dealing with each type of personality. 1. Show off (people who would like to be the center of attraction whenever possible). 2. Worriers (people who worry about everything).

3. Gossips (people who spread rumors and often exaggerate information). 4. Bullies (people who use threats, fear, and cruelty to control others). 5. Whiners (people who grumble and complain about everything).

ACTIVITY # 12

How Well Do I Know Myself

On your activity sheet, trace your left and right hand on each side of the paper. Each finger represents a characteristic of a healthy sexuality.

ACTIVITY # 13

Male versus Female

In your activity notebook, copy the Venn diagram as shown below. Write the roles played by male and female in the space provided. In the space where the two circles meet, write the common roles played by both. Where they don’t join, write their specific roles. Choose the specific roles from the box below.

MALE FEMALE

Part III. WHAT TO REFLECT AND UNDERSTAND

You can reflect and understand better your personality by accomplishing the activity below.

ACTIVITY # 14

Read and reflect on the article below.

ACTIVITY # 15

Role Play

To better analyze the factors that affect the attitudes and practices related to human sexuality, you are going to internalize a given character.

Gather your classmates, group yourselves into five (5). Each member of the group will assume the role of any of the following:

1. one who grew up in a very religious family
2. one who was raised by authoritative parents
3. one who has been strongly influenced by media
4. one who has good friends from the opposite sex
5. One who has been educated in an exclusive school

You are given ten (10) minutes to prepare a short skit.

Each group shall present the skit in two (2) minutes.
After the presentation, analyze the factors that shape the sexual attitudes of the various characters. Answer the following questions. Use them as your guides.
What are the factors that shape our sexual attitudes?
How do these factors positively or negatively affect our sexual attitudes? What can we do to maximize the negative effect of these factors on our sexual attitudes?

Rate yourselves accordingly using the rubrics below.
CRITERIA
ADVANCE
(20)
PROFICIENT
(15)
APPROACHING PROFICIENT
(10)
DEVELOPING
(5)
Work Attitude (cooperative with the group)
Always cooperative and focused on task during group work and presentation. Usually cooperative and focused on task during group work and presentation. Sometimes cooperative and focused on task during group work and presentation. Rarely cooperative and focused on task during group work and presentation. Presentation of

Character

Convincing in communicating character’s feelings, situation and motives. Competent in communicating character’s feelings, situations and motives. Adequate in communicating character’s feelings, situation and motives. Limited in communicating character’s feelings, situation and motives. Relevance of the actions

Actions are clearly established and effectively sustained.
Actions are clearly established and generally sustained.
Actions are established but may not be sustained.
Actions are vaguely established and may not be sustained.
Use of Non-Verbal
Cues (voice,
gestures, eye
contact )
Impressive variety of non-verbal cues is used in an exemplary way. Good variety of non-verbal cues is used in a competent way.
Satisfactory variety of non-verbal cues is used in an acceptable way. Limited variety of non-verbal cues is used in a developing way. Imagination,
Creativity, and
Choices

Demonstrate
insight that
powerfully
enhance role play
Choices
Demonstrate thoughtfulness that completely enhances role play. Choices
Demonstrate awareness that acceptably enhance role play.
Choices demonstrate little awareness and do little to enhance role play.

Congratulations! You did a great job! Please refer to the boxed entries for you to assess how you fare in Activity # 15.

Education for human sexuality deals with the formation of
virtuous habits
right attitudes
integration of positive values

ACTIVITY # 16

For each factor listed below, provide examples of how this factor affects your sexual attitudes and behaviors. Write your answer in your activity notebook.

A.1. Family. Family values oftentimes determine your own values. Describe how your family affects your values regarding human sexuality.

A.2. Culture. Filipinos living in different regions have diverse cultures and beliefs. Your cultural background can affect your values regarding sexuality, along with the norms and standards set by society. Describe how your culture affects your human sexuality.

3. Peers. Like your family, your friends can also have a significant impact on your views on human sexuality. Describe how your friends affect your human sexuality.

4. Media. The media plays a significant role in our lives as we regularly watch televisions, listen to radio, search the internet, read newspapers, etc. Describe how media affects your human sexuality.

ACTIVITY # 17

Analyze Media Message

Think of a commercial and write how men and women are being portrayed. Then, respond to the following:

What is the commercial all about?
What messages were presented about being a man or a woman?
Is the information real and accurate? Why or why not?

boys and girls are given the impression of men being superior to women. In as much as we would like to practice gender equality, the rules for human conduct and human appropriateness are not alike for both sexes as practiced in most areas in the Philippines. This is likely shown in the examples below: A. Boys and men are permitted to stay out more and up to a later time than the girls and women.

B. A philandering or immoral man is considered as demonstrating his manliness or “pagkalalaki”. A philandering or immoral woman is considered as cheap, bad, or “masamang babae”.

C. Women are expected to remain virginal until they marry, while it is generally acceptable for men to have sexual experience before marriage.

D. Women are socially judged and legally penalized for adultery and for having children out of wedlock.

E. Men who stay at home to do household chores instead of having jobs to earn money for the family are considered by some as “under ‘d saya.”

ACTIVITY # 18

In your activity notebook, answer the following questions:
1. What is your stand on double standard of morality?
2. How can we possibly eliminate the double standard of morality?

VIRGINITY a virgin is a person who has not had sexual interaction.

ACTIVITY # 19

My Abstinence Bag

Abstinence is the best decision one can make in safeguarding sexual health. In this activity, list five items that you value most in life and will help you say no to unhealthful practices. Explain how this item can encourage you to make right decisions.

For example, putting a family picture in my abstinence bag can remind me of how I value my loved ones and how I would like to make them proud of my achievements.

ACTIVITY # 20

In your activity notebook, answer the following questions:
a.i.1. Do you believe that virginity is important for both boys and girls? Why? a.i.2. What are your attitudes and standards towards virginity? Compare it with the norms and standards set by society. Does it confirm? a.i.3. How do you value virginity?

Part IV. WHAT TO TRANSFER

ACTIVITY # 21

What Do You Value?

Values are qualities or conditions that are important to a person. Complete this survey by determining what you value in yourself. In your activity notebook, tick on the appropriate box based on the importance you assign to each attribute.

Not Important
Important
Very Important
1. To be respected by my parents.

2. To be respected by my friends.

3. To have a positive image of myself.

4. To have lots of friends.

5. To do well in school.

6. To give and receive love.

7. To stay virgin until marriage.

8. To build healthy relationships with members of both sexes.

9. To appreciate sexuality as factor of personality.

10. To make intelligent decisions concerning sexual behaviour.

After completing this survey, what observations can you make about your values?

ACTIVITY # 16

ACTIVITY# 22

Visualize & Learn!

a. You will be given five minutes to close your eyes and imagine a scenario in the past where kings and queens once lived. Imagine you are the king (if male) or queen (if female). The queen is captured and needs recuing from her captors. The king assumes the conventional role of a brave king who rescues his queen, while the queen takes on the role of a meek and mild queen who needs looking after.

b. Visualize a scenario of a typical Filipino family. Analyze and enumerate the roles being played by the male members of the family (grandfather, father, male siblings) and the female members of the family (grandmother, mother, female siblings). Does it conform to the norms set by the society?

ACTIVITY # 22

Critical Thinking
Let us try to connect our lesson to current issues in our country.

ACTIVITY # 23

Watch and Relax!
This is your opportunity to show your understanding of gender role in the media.

Choose a movie or a television show which you believe has gender role labels in it and you must deconstruct and analyze. Extract any gender-biased content.

Recreate one of the scenes of the film by submitting a script of your own for this scene. Write a reflection on why you think the gender role depiction in media must be addressed.

ACTIVITY # 24

K W A Chart
In your activity notebook, copy the table as shown. List your top five (5) issues concerning sexuality regarding what you know, what you want to learn, and what you have learned. Give a brief explanation of your answer.

Sexuality Issue
What I Know
What I Learned
How I Will Apply
(the concept/skill learned)
1.

2.

3.

4.

5.

Human sexuality is the totality of being a man or being a woman. It includes everything that makes you a male or a female – your ideas, behavior, feelings and judgements.

ACTIVITY #25

As you analyze the significance of sexuality to family health, ask yourself the following questions:

Do I periodically evaluate my sexual health?
Am I making good decisions?
Am I setting and meeting my goals?
Do I use refusal skills when I need to?
Am I communicating my feelings and expectations?
Do I compare and evaluate media messages as to the norms and standards of society

SUMMARY
Think back on something that you have learned from this Learning Materials. Reflect on the following questions and then write your answers on the box. 1) What did you learn?

2) How did you go about learning the lesson?

3) Why did you choose to learn it?
4) What/Who helped you learn it?

5) What hindered your learning?
6) How did you know that you had learned it?

LEARNING MODULE FOR
HEALTH – GRADE 8
QUARTER 1
Family Health
Module 1

Issues and Problems Related to Human Sexuality

Sexually Transmitted Infections
(with emphasis on HIV/AIDS )

Government Policies and
Republic Act No. 8504 and 7719

Introduction:

After learning about human sexuality and gender, you will now be introduced to the nature and prevention of sexually-transmitted infections (STIs) like Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) and Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS).

Sexually-transmitted Infection (STI) is a communicable disease that is spread from person to person through sexual contact. Despite the efforts of government and civil society, the incidence of STIs particularly HIV/AIDS continues to increase. Thus, it poses a serious threat to Filipinos especially to young people like you. According to the Department of Health’s Philippine HIV and AIDS Registry, we had already exceeded the 10 thousand mark in HIV infections since 1984 when the disease was first documented in the country.

More than a thousand of these already developed into full-blown AIDS. Sexually-transmitted infection is preventable. The first step is to remain sexually abstinent until marriage. Next is to obtain accurate information about these diseases and recognize inaccurate information. Third is to enhance life skills. By knowing how to make decisions and
practice refusal skills you can never go wrong in safeguarding your health. OBJECTIVES:

At the end of this module you will learn to
1. Discuss the signs, symptoms and effects of sexually transmitted infections (STIs) such as Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) infection and Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome ( AIDS) 2. Identify and analyze steps in the prevention and control of STIs 3. Realize why abstinence is the only sure way to avoid sexually transmitted infections particularly HIV/AIDS 4. Follow government policies in the prevention and control of HIV and AIDS (RA 8504 or Philippine AIDS prevention and control Act) 5. Explain other government efforts in ensuring a clean blood supply to prevent issues and problems related to sexuality. 6. Applies decision-making skills in managing sexuality related issues.

This time you will answer the following pre assessment activity. This is non-graded test. The purpose is to identify your learning needs. It is important that you answer the items to help you find out what you need to know.

PRE-ASSESSMENT

A. DIRECTIONS: Before you start studying the next lesson on human sexuality, you are going to answer the self-inventory test about STI and HIV/AIDS.

How familiar are you with STIs HIV/AIDS?
1. I have never heard of them or I have heard of them but don’t know what they are. 2. I have some idea what they are, but don’t know why or how they happen. 3. I have a clear idea what they are, but haven’t discussed them. 4. I can explain what they are and how they occur, what they do that may affect family life.

Have you made a personal health plan on how to protect yourself from risky sexual behaviour? 1. I have neither planned nor thought about it.
2. I have planned but not thought about it.
3. I have planned but not practiced it.
4. I have both planned and practiced it.

B. DIRECTIONS: For each of the following topic, place a check mark in the cell if it describes your experience.

Topic/Concept
Have read it
Have heard it
Have seen a TV or movie production
Have written a report paper on it
STIs HIV/AIDS

Abstinence

Refusal Skill

Blood donation/transfusion

C. DIRECTIONS: Fact or Fiction: Are the following statements true or false?

Write true or false on the space before the number in order to find out your knowledge in sexually transmitted infections particularly HIV/ AIDS. When you finish this module, you have to plan on how you can avoid being infected with HIV/AIDS and live a healthy lifestyle in order to have a healthy relationship with your family.

1. A person can acquire HIV/ AIDS from using intravenous syringe used by the infected person

2. Most sexually transmitted infections can be treated and cured without medical attention.

3. If an HIV/AIDS woman gives a normal birth to a child, her child may have a greater chance of being infected too.

4. A person always knows when he or she has a sexually transmitted infection.

5. People who get sexually transmitted infections have a lot of sex partners.

6. All types of sexually transmitted disease can be cured.

7. Parental consent is needed before you are treated for a sexually transmitted disease if you are under 18 years of age 8. You can have no symptoms, yet be infected with a sexually transmitted disease and be able to pass it on to someone else. You can get several sexually transmitted diseases at one time.

Check if your answers are correct.

What you will do!

Learning Goals and target

Read the questions below and fill out the column in my response column Write your answer in your activity notebook. What? / So What?/ Now What?

Strategy:

My response
What:
What I want to know about the topic?

What behavior I would like to change or improve to have a healthy sexual behaviour?

What steps are involved to accomplish this healthy sexual behavior?

So what:
Why is this important?

What does it mean to me?

How does knowing about this information change my thinking?

What other ideas in human sexuality do I have or connections can I make to STIs and HIV/AIDS?

Now what:

What are the implications human sexuality to a healthy family life? What am I going to do or apply to protect and promote healthy sexuality? What measures will I do to prevent HIV/AIDS?

Just enjoy and have fun in learning!

Your teacher will help and guide you as you walk through your learning journey.

Part I. WHAT TO KNOW
Are you ready?

What is STIs?
Sexually-transmitted infection or STI, also known as sexually-transmitted disease (STD) is a communicable disease that is spread by a pathogen (disease-causing organism) from one person to another person through sexual contact.

A person who has a sexual relationship with someone who is infected can get one or more of these diseases. STIs are transmitted through an exchange of bodily fluids during sexual intercourse. These infections are commonly caused by bacteria and viruses. Some STIs can be treated successfully but many STIs such as HIV/AIDS still have no cure. The good news is, all STIs can be prevented.

Symptoms of STIs depend on the type of infections. Common symptoms include discharge from the genitals, warts, blisters or sores in the genital area, a rash, painful urination, or flu- like symptoms. Some STIs don’t have any signs or symptoms. In fact one of every 10 people can have STIs but be asymptomatic. These people are carriers and are very dangerous because they can transmit an infection without even knowing it. .

The only certain way to prevent/to keep from catching these diseases is by abstinence. Sexual abstinence is the deliberate choice to refrain from all sexual activity

Let’s Review
1. What is a sexually transmitted infection?
2. What is abstinence, and why is abstinence the only certain way to prevent STIs? Knowing About STIs
Teens are the age group most likely to get STIs that is why it is important for teens to learn about STIs Study the table below and identify sexually transmitted infections. Make a summary and identify the major ways on how to prevent sexually transmitted infections.

COMMON SEXUALLY TRANSMITTED INFECTIONS

AIDS
Chlamydia
Genital herpes
Gonorrhea
Syphilis

Pathogen
(causative agent)

Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV)

Chlamydia Trachomatis bacterium

Herpes Simplex-2 Virus

Neisseria gonorrhoea bacterium

Treponema Pallidum bacterium
Long term effects
Immune systems failure, severe illness leading to death,8-10 years to see signs of infection, infection of infants leading to death In women, pelvic inflammation with abdominal pain, fever, menstrual bleeding, ectopic pregnancy In men, enlarged lymph glands of the groin, infection of the testicles. Infection during birth can cause blindness or illness in newborn If left untreated, it may cause cervical cancer in women and cause deformities in unborn babies Sterility, liver disease, testicular disease, infection of heart lining, eye infections for newborn leading to blindness If left untreated, mental illness, heart and kidney damage, and death may result Prevention measures

Abstinence from sexual intercourse and from use of intravenous drugs Abstinence from sexual intercourse
Abstinence from sexual intercourse and from use of intravenous drugs Abstinence from sexual intercourse and from use of intravenous drugs Abstinence from sexual intercourse and from se of intravenous drugs What are HIV and AIDS?

Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS) is a fatal communicable disease with no effective treatment or known cure. It is the final stage of infection caused by the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). When HIV enters the body it attacks the body’s immune system. Thus, the body becomes vulnerable to opportunistic infections or diseases that develop when the body’s defense system becomes weak. Among these infections are Kaposi’s sarcoma, a rare but deadly type of skin cancer, recurrent pneumonia, and toxoplasmosis within the brain.

Early symptoms of infection with HIV may include a rash, sore throat, fever, and tiredness. Nearly everyone with HIV develops AIDS. People with AIDS cannot fight off diseases that healthy people could easily resist. Because AIDS has no cure, people with AIDS eventually die from one of these diseases. Ways of Acquiring HIV

Activity 1. Deal or no deal
Let us deal with how HIV AIDS can be transmitted from one person to another. The following chart lists ways of acquiring HIV. If the manner is false, put an X on the No Column meaning no deal, but if the manner is an actual way of acquiring HIV put an X in the Yes Column meaning we need to deal it.

Ways of Acquiring HIV

Yes
No
1. Breastfeeding .

2. Handshaking

3. Sharing the eating utensils with someone infected with HIV.

4 . Donating blood with Red Cross

5.Selling blood in blood banks

6. Someone who has HIV who cough and sneeze near you.

7.Hugging someone with HIV

8. Having unprotected intercourse with someone with HIV

9. Sharing contaminated syringes, needles or other sharp instruments with someone infected by HIV

10.Receiving transfusion of blood infected with HIV

11.Sitting in the toilet seat used by the HIV patient

12. Mosquito bites

13. Tattooing using an infected needle

14.Swimming with an HIV infected person

15. Wearing clothes of an infected person

16. Ear and Body piercing with an infected needle

HIV must enter into the person’s bloodstream to infect the person. HIV has been found in many body fluids including blood, semen, vaginal fluids, and breast milk of infected person. Which items have you already known and been informed about how HIV/AIDS can be acquired? Have you heard of other ways AIDs can /can’t be transmitted or not transmitted? How can you correct misconceptions? Check your answer. Your teacher will help you analyze the responses . Make a generalization on how a person can acquire HIV AIDS.

I learned that HIV can be transmitted by ___________
I learned that HIV cannot be transmitted by_________________ 1
1
2
2
3
3
4
4
5
5
6
6
7
7

Activity 2 REDUCING THE RISK OF HIV

In small groups, brainstorm on how HIV can be transmitted and then create a chart or web to illustrate it. For each method of transmission, you and your partners will list at least three ways to reduce one’s risk of exposure to HIV. A sample chart appears below. Groups share their charts/webs and discuss.

Mode of Transmission
Ways to prevent and control

Sexual Contact
(Infected Body Fluids, Blood . Semen).
____________________________________________
____________________________________________
____________________________________________
Injecting drug and sharing infected needles
______________________________________________
_______________________________________________
_______________________________________________
________________________________________________

Maternal transference (Mother to baby during pregnancy)

________________________________________
___________________________________________
___________________________________________

Activity 3 Good Reasons for Abstinence
A. DEFINING ABSTINENCE
How will you define abstinence? Have you experience giving up one thing in your life in one-week period? Try this with a partner or classmate. Choose one or two from the activityies. 1. You will refrain from any of the following activity- watching television, not eating a particular food, or not playing a particular game or sport for the entire one-week period. 2. During that time, you will keep a diary of your feelings and attitudes about being “abstinent.”

3. After a week is up, you and some of your classmates will meet in small groups and share your feelings and discoveries.
Answer the following questions in your small group.:

a. How hard was it to abstain for the entire week?
b. Did it get more or less difficult as the week went by? Explain. c. Did
friends or family members try to tempt you during the time period? d. How did you handle the pressure?
Abstinence is _____________________________________________. Now what is sexual abstinence? How can sexual abstinence keep a person from getting pregnant and protect them from STIs HIV AIDS? Some people choose abstinence for other reasons as well.

Read the article and use the information in the article to complete the chart that follows. Remember to copy the chart in your activity notebook and fill it with required entries.

There is an increasing number of young people being infected with Sexually Transmitted Infections (STIs) or for every 10 cases 1 is a child. The most serious of these diseases is AIDS

Activity 4

Name
Reason for choosing abstinence
Your name______
(Your thoughts concerning this reason)
Marta

Jonathan

Peter and Joanna

Racquel

Noemi

Reducing the Risks of Sexually Transmitted Infections

Rubric for your Activity 2 and 4

4
3
2
1
Points
Explanation
Complete response with detailed explanation
Good Response
With clear explanation
Explanation is not clear
Misses key points

Demonstrated
Knowledge
Shows complete understanding of the question
Shows substantial understanding
Response shows some understanding
Response shoes lack of understanding

Sensible opinions
Complete response with bright opinion
Meets the sensible opinion
Hardly makes sensible opinion
Does not meet sensible opinions

Total points

YOU ARE PROTECTED!!!
Government Policies in the Prevention and Control of HIV/AIDS and other STIs Republic Act No. 8504 also known as Philippine AIDS Law
Government efforts in ensuring a clean blood supply to prevent issues and Problems related to sexuality (RA

7719) or the Blood Services Act of 1994)

Let’s Appreciate
What is the government doing to protect the health of the Family in terms of STIs HIV AIDS? How are you protected in case of blood donation and blood transfusion?

Here’s more….
Have you donated blood? Or received blood transfusion?
How does it feel? There is a law that covers the proper ways to give and receive blood services.

PART II. WHAT TO PROCESS
Activity 1 Let’s Think Critically

Reflect on the following focused points and write your ideas in your activity notebook 1. Analysis: How can good general health practices be healthful in preventing STIs. 2. Only two strategies if practiced consistently reduced the risk of STIs to zero. Name the steps in the prevention and control of STIs particularly HIV/AIDs 3. Analyze why sexual abstinence is the most effective method for the prevention of HIV/ AIDS and other STIs.

Activity 2. Life Skills in Action

Common Sense and Good judgment are powerful strategies to prevent and control STI HIV AIDs. Think about this 1. How does alcohol affect the persons judgment in making responsible sexual behavior? 2. Why do we need to practice saying NO to behaviors that are risky to your sexuality? 3. Explain how you can practice refusal skills to prevent and control STI HIV/AIDS.

Activity 3 Tracing the Link

The drug, the blood, the alcohol connections to STI HIV AIDS

How does it contribute to the transmission of STI HIV AIDS?

Read the article below

Dr. Jane Perez is a school physician lecturing about STI HIV AIDS in Bangkalan National High School asks the students the following questions: “How many of you have seen the effects of drinking alcoholic beverages or have read the effects of taking dangerous l drugs? “What is the danger of using shared syringe in cases of blood transfusion? “ “What are the possible harmful effects to people being tattooed using needles? “ Have you donated blood? Or received blood transfusion? She received varied responses, and she continued asking them to see a strong links or connection in the prevalence of STI HIV/AIDS.

What are the connections of alcohol, drug abuse, blood donation and transfusion to STI and HIV/AIDS? Can you give your response? Write your answer on the space provided and discuss your answer with your classmates.

1. How can drinking alcohol leads to STI HIV ?
_____________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________ 2. What are the dangers of using shared needles in tattooing, or shared syringe in injecting drugs? ______________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________

3. Have you donated blood? Or received blood transfusion?
How does it feel?
There is a law that covers the proper ways to give and receive blood services. It is RA 7719 or the Blood Services act of 1994. What is Blood Services Act of 1994 (RA 7719 )?
______________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________ Why is it important that blood donors be qualified to donate blood? Can you relate this law to STI and HIV/AIDS protection and prevention? ______________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________ Day Eight

PART III. WHAT TO REFLECT AND UNDERSTAND

These are activities you will do to help you acquire adequate and significant information about this topic. It is important that you clarify ideas about the lesson. You are going to watch an interactive video and video news episode about HIV AIDS incidence in the Philippines this will help you and be aware of the

Activity 1 Interactive Video

a. Visit the web sites and collect materials and Fact sheets about STI HIV / AIDS. b. View some video clips on HIV updates in the Philippines like Kapuso mo Jessica Sojo www.you tube.com c. The “Power of You” by the DEP ED -UNICEF

Activity 2: Investigative Reporting HIV/AIDS
Visit your school clinic or barangay health center.
Interview a health personnel about HIV/AIDS using the following guide questions: What is HIV? What is AIDS?
What are the signs and symptoms of Human Immunodeficiency Virus ( HIV) and Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS) How can HIV/AIDS be spread from one person to another person? What are the effects of HIV/AIDS to our body?

How can HIV and AIDS be prevented?
Report the information that you have gathered in class. Compare this with what you already learned in class.

Activity 3 I Believe

After the activity you can make a compilation of facts and information about HIV / AIDS. Be ready to make an advocacy campaign about preventing HIV /AIDS. You need to be heard and speak out on the topic” HOW can I be safe from HIV / AIDS.” Tell the class what you believe

Activity 4 Just Say NO!
How to say no and remain friendly to someone you like?

Is it difficult for you to refuse? If somebody ask you to do risky behavior like drinking and smoking or even doing pre-marital sex , how will you refuse?

Throughout life you are likely to meet people who will persuade you to do things you do not want to do. How do you say no and still remain friendly with someone you like? Is it difficult for you to refuse? If somebody asks you to do risky behavior like drinking and smoking or even do pre-marital sex, how will you refuse?

The ability to say NO to unhealthful practices is called Refusal Skills.

The following are the different ways of saying NO to things that you don’t want to do.

Technique of saying NO

The Response

Whats Your Response?
Maintain eye contact and say NO firmly
Person A: Do you want to smoke cigarette

Person B: NO,( firmly)
____________________________________

____________________________________

Be true to yourself and to your belief. Give reasons for saying NO

Person A: Do you
want to be my drinking buddy?

Person B: NO ! I love my body. I don’t want to die young.

___________________________________

____________________________________

Walk away or avoid the situation

If you know that the group are doing risky sexual behavior that you don’t want to do or join, then JUST don’t GO

____________________________________
Change the subject

Try suggesting something better to do with your time,
Person B: Let’s smoke.
Person A: I think it would be better if we eat instead.

________________________________________________________________-______ Match verbal with
non-verbal communication

Shake your head and say NO !

_________________________________________________________________ Give your personal Conclusion:

Internalize how you will firmly refuse an offer to engage in risky behavior

For more skills on Refusal Skills Visit http://www.thecoolspot.gov/index.asp

Activity 5

Role-play the following situation showing how you can express feeling or thought on resisting pressures using refusal skills. Practice with your friend.

1. A friend inviting you to drink alcohol after school
2. Ramon told you to cut classes so you can attend a birthday party. 3. Carmen invited you to try smoking.

Activity 6. Check it out:
1. Find out what government agencies are responsible for educating the public about HIV/ AIDS in our country. List them in your notebook and write their specific task/s. 2. How does the government protect the rights of people living with HIV/AIDS? 3. What services are available for people living with HIV/AIDS? How can they avail of these services? 4. What will be your behavior toward a person with HIV/AIDS? What will you tell her/him? SUMMATIVE ASSESSMENT

Answer the summative test before you proceed .

PART IV. WHAT TO TRANSFER

Activity 1
Let us apply what have you learn. Design a poster that tells teenager on how to avoid STIs and HIV/AIDs using Abstinence and Refusal Skill.

Activity 2 Applying Health Knowledge
1. Design a booklet or a health journal entitled “STI and HIV/ AIDS ALERT” that summarizes the major points presented in the lesson. 2. What steps should public health agencies take to further control the spread of STI and HIV/AIDS? 3. As a teenager, how will you avoid being infected by this disease? 4. You will need parental involvement. Ask your parent or another adult at home how they learned about blood donation, STIs and AIDS/HIV. Ask them about the accuracy of the information. Seek advice from your parents on how you can prevent being infected by HIV/ AIDS 5. Community Involvement. Find out what kind of services are available to help people who have
HIV/AIDs in your community. Look also in your community measures they are doing in relation to Blood donations. Prepare a report to share your findings with your classmates

Activity 3 Thinking Critically
1. Application. Develop a law of your own that you think would be effective in the prevention and control of STIs HIV/AIDS. Explain your thinking. 2. Application. The only known way to prevent a kind of STI is to abstain from sexual contact. What strategies can you suggest that would be effective in telling this concept to teens who are already sexually active?

Are you ready to answer the following questions?

Activity 4 Critical thinking

Imagine that you have a chance making solutions on how to decrease the number of HIV/ AIDS in our country, what are the three things that you will do?

1. Write all your answers in your health journal.
2. Post your decisions in the form of sticker messages on the bulletin board or in any display board

3. Suggest activities for you and your class to decide.
a. You may want to present a theater presentation on how you will prevent and Protect yourself from contacting STIs and HIV/AIDS b. Organize a Parent’s forum on STI and HIV/AIDS. Invite your teachers, and parents to this information campaign. c. Start a students’ advocacy campaign on how teenagers can be protected from HIV AIDS Independent Study

Activity 5
Check yourself. Reflect and Understand
After you complete the guided practice review and answer the questions below to review what you have learned 1. In your own words, can you give the difference between HIV and AIDS. 2. What are the four ways that HIV can be passed from one person to another person? 3. If you become HIV positive,
what will you do to prevent AIDS? And what will you do to live longer? 4. AIDS is not curable but it is preventable. What are the best methods of prevention? 5. Name two ways teenagers can do to reduce the risk of HIV infection. 6. How can using alcohol and illegal drugs increase a person’s risk of having HIV infection?

Use the chart below in answering the items
SUMMARY
Think back on something that you learned on this Learning Materials. Reflect on the following questions and then write your answers on the box. 1) What did you learn?

2) How did you go about learning the lesson?

3) Why did you choose to learn it?
4) What/Who helped you learn it?

5) What hindered your learning?
6) How did you know that you had learned it?

Supplemental Readings
RA 8504 OR THE PHILIPPINE AIDS LAW OR
THE PHILIPPINE AIDS PREVENTION AND CONTROL ACT.
Article1
The Government must promote education and information campaigns. Schools and non-formal education programs must include HIV/ AIDS education. The DOH must conduct public health education campaigns.

The government must provide education for Filipinos going abroad. Employers, working with DOLE must develop workplace education and safety. The Department of Tourism must provide education for tourists and transients. LGUs must develop local HIV prevention and education efforts. Accurate information about prophylactics will be provided.

It is against the law to give false or intentionally misleading information
on HIV/AIDS.

Article 2
The Government will develop and promote safe medical practices All blood, organs, and tissue for donation will be tested. If it tests positive, it will be disposed of safely, and not used. The DOH will provide guidelines on safe surgery and medical procedures. Article 3

The Government will provide appropriate confidential HIV testing. HIV testing can only be done with the consent of the person tested. The DOH will provide anonymous HIV testing Counselling will be conducted before and after testing

The DOH will make adequate and affordable HIV testing available in all of the barangays in the Philippines. Article 4
The Government will ensure adequate health and support services for people with HIV. Hospitals will provide adequate care for persons with HIV.
LGUs must provide community-based prevention and care efforts. Livelihood efforts will be made available for people with HIV. The DOH is to do STD prevention and control efforts.
The DOH is to make sure that health insurance is available to people with HIV.

Article 5
The Government will monitor HIV/AIDS
The Government will establish an AIDSWATCH council.
Reporting procedures will be developed to track HIV rates, while respecting client confidentiality. Contract tracing is permitted provided confidentiality is not breached.

Article 6
Confidentiality will be protected on HIV status.
All healthcare workers and anyone handling health records will strictly preserve patient confidentiality on HIV status, and the identity of people with HIV. HIV status can be shared by health officials in three circumstances; officials of the AIDSWATCH council, health workers who are
involved in treatment and need to know for their own safety, and a judge if under subpoena for an official court case. HIV results may be given to the person tested, an official of the AIDSWATCH council, and a parent or guardian. It cannot be given to anyone else. Legal penalties can be provided for breaching confidentiality. People with HIV must inform spouses and sex partners as soon as reasonably possible.

Article 7
Discrimination against people with HIV is illegal.
Employers cannot discriminate in hiring, firing, promoting, or assigning based on actual or suspected HIV status. Schools are not allowed to refuse admission, punish students, or deny participation in activities based on real or perceived HIV status. A person with HIV has the legal right to travel, live, and lodge with the same freedom as any other citizen. Quarantines and other restrictions are illegal. A person with HIV has every legal right to seek public office. Credit services cannot be denied based on HIV status. Insurance cannot be refused based on HIV status, provided the person does not lie about their HIV status. Hospitals can health services cannot refuse treatment or discriminate based on HIV status. Decent burials cannot be denied based on HIV status.

Legal penalties for discrimination will be enforced.
Article 8
The government will establish a Philippine National AIDS Council This council will be responsible for implementing the act and conducting all national AIDS performances.


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