Analysis (How does the development affect the current U.S. health care system?)
A surgical procedure is medical treatment that involves a physician cutting into a patient’s body to repair or remove something. Surgery procedures have existed since prehistoric man. In 1540 C.E. barbers and surgeons united to form The United Barber-Surgeons Company. These barber-surgeons performed tooth extractions and bloodletting procedures. As our knowledge grows, so do our abilities. Some procedures such as tracheostomy, described in detail by Paul of Aegina (625-690 AD), remain pertinent today while others which contributed to the demise of many patients (e.g. bloodletting) were surprisingly slow to disappear (Hindle, K. S., & Hindle, S. J., 2001). Surgeries save many lives. Today surgeries are used for replacements and transplants. Elective non-life threatening surgeries are performed quite commonly now. Microsurgery uses small incisions to minimize exposure and reduce the impact of the procedure all together. There is also cosmetic surgery which is usually elective and not medically necessary. With today’s surgical practices the body can be manipulated in many ways with minimal effect.
Technology is the creation and usage of tools for achieving goals. In health care, technology is used for information purposes, to teach, and heal. We have computers that keep track of medical records. We have machines that can see through the human body. There are sensors that can collect data from a patient and transmit it wirelessly to a physician. There are even machines that aid physicians during surgery. Technology completely affects health care. It has allowed patients and doctors to stay connected better than ever. Telecommunications provide health care workers with the ability to communicate with each other all around the world. Technology has allowed for easier storage and access to medical information. Health care workers can locate a patient’s information with the click of a button. Patients can go online and access a plethora of health information. Technology also enables us to view the body in new ways (CAT scan, x-rays). Robotics allow physicians to perform surgeries in places where they cannot be via remote link.
3. Child Birth
Beginning back in the Renaissance era barber-surgeons provide child birth services. Much later in 1716 midwives were given the ability to obtain licenses and help women through labor. Shortly after the war of 1812 medical schools began teaching birthing techniques to physicians. By the 1900’s physicians attended approximately half of the nation’s births. Child birthing at hospitals performed by physicians are much safer than the “home births” of yester years. With hospitals the patient’s area is always clean and sterile. This reduces risk for the mother and child. With physicians as the primary deliverer, complications can be handled sooner and adequately. These techniques have allowed the safe birthing of millions. This protects are future generations by keeping them safe.
As the United States grew toward independence in the 1700’s, public health efforts also grew. In 1796 Dr. Edward Jenner created and tested the first vaccine (Henderson, D. A., 1997). After word of the discovery two London doctors confirmed Jenner’s findings and began wide distribution. Within 3 years the information was translated into 4 different languages and spread across 4 continents. The success of vaccines has led to a situation where many health care providers and parents have not witnessed the morbidity and mortality of the diseases for which these agents are indicated (Ruddock, B., & Malak, K., 2005). Vaccines offer protection from numerous disease. Without vaccines illness would be far more rampant.
In 1965 President Johnson signed into law the Medicare program. Medicare provides medical access for citizens 65 and older who cannot afford care themselves. Over time the coverage has expanded to include disabled citizens and those with end stage renal disease. Medicare gives medical access to many people who would not have it otherwise. Medicare is the government’s first program associated with public health insurance. Since then the U.S. has seen Medicaid and now recently the Affordable Care Act. Essentially, these are government programs designed to ensure care for citizens. These programs expand health care. As more people are able to have health coverage, more health care services become needed. While these programs provide protection they also stimulate growth within the medical field.
How does everything connect? Write up a comprehensive overview of how these events evolved into each other.
First on my list is surgery. While child birth has been around since the dawn of man, modern birthing practices did not come into effect until the 1800’s. Surgical procedures on the other hand, have been dated back to 6500 hundred years before common era (BCE). Skulls found in France show signs of a rudimentary surgery called trepanation, which involves drilling a hole in the skull. (Heisler. J., 2014). Surgery has been a major health tool for a very long time and we are still improving upon it today. Technology comes second on the list because ever since man realized he could manipulate the body, tools have been needed to do so. Even the skulls in France required some sort of tool to drill the hole. Of course technology goes beyond simple tools. Technology encompasses numerous devices each with their own unique quality.
Technology expands our capabilities and allows us to do things we simply could not do ourselves. Technology also improves child birthing techniques. Thanks to sonograms physicians can see babies inside of the womb. This gives them great insight into the condition and development of the child in the womb. Before technology such as this, parents had to wait till the day of birth before they knew anything about the child. Next on the list are vaccines. While child birth did not directly influence the invention of vaccines, technology in fact did. Without the tools to collect and hold specimens, Jenner would never have been able to conduct his research. Additionally, vaccines have improved the health status of everyone including children. Thanks to vaccines, children (and ultimately the population) no longer have to worry about Polio and other various viruses. Most required vaccines are given to children during their developing years.
This protect the child through their entire life. Last of the developments is Medicare. Vaccines didn’t directly lead to Medicare, however all other developments did. With surgical procedures, technology, vaccines, and better child birthing practices, more people are able to live longer lives. As the population’s life expectancy increases, so does the need for care in all facets of life. Programs like Medicare protect the elderly by providing health care for those who could not afford it on their own. Essentially, social policies eventually become important for societies that can provide health care. Medicare, Medicaid, and the Affordable Care Act are necessary social devices that protect U.S. citizens.
Austin, A., & Wetle, V. (2012). The United States health care system: Combining business, health, and delivery. (2nd ed.). Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson Education.
Lemelson-MIT. (2003, April). Louis Pasteur. Retrieved from http://web.mit.edu/invent/iow/pasteur.html
Henderson, D. A. (1997). Edward Jenner’s vaccine. Public Health Reports, 112(2), 116-21. Retrieved from http://search.proquest.com/docview/230183418?accountid=458
Ruddock, B., & Malak, K. (2005). Sorting out risks, benefits of vaccine. Canadian Pharmacists Journal, 138(5), 59-60. Retrieved from http://search.proquest.com/docview/221177193?accountid=458
Hindle, K. S., & Hindle, S. J. (2001). A history of surgery. Royal Society of Medicine (Great Britain).Journal of the Royal Society of Medicine, 94(8), 423. Retrieved from http://search.pr
Heisler. J. (2014). The Evolution of Surgery. Retrieved from http://surgery.about.com/od/surgeryinthemedia/a/HistoryOfSurgeryTimeline.htm