Health Campaign three on diabetes serves to implement change in population health. The main focus of this presentation is on recommendations for implementing and assessing the change in population. The presentation is to discuss the various recommended implementations to improve the health of diabetic population by addressing the social, economic and cultural factors. The paper also recommends different approaches in place for the diabetic population such as the programs, policies, laws, and environmental aspects for assessing the health and wellness of the target population. The paper addresses several challenges related to improving the health of the diabetic patients by examining the global implications, environmental factors and disease prevention. Finally the paper summarizes the epidemiology and other data models used by the managers for decision making and to anticipate future trends. Mass media campaigns are the treatments based on mass media channels to present subjects about the physical activity to big and undefined audience. These campaigns are presented to enhance awareness and knowledge of the gains of the physical activity, and beliefs about the physical activity, alter physical activity behavior in diabetic populations.
The subject matter can be channelized via as newspaper, brochures, manuals, radio, television, and websites or in a combination. Social support networks for diabetes using internet and mobile applications. Social support networks uses mobile applications for diabetes such as M-health for the daily monitoring and self-management of diabetes (Chomutare, et al., 2013). Economic factors include awareness of the direct medical cost and indirect medical cost for diabetic management is important for the population. Direct medical cost which is the average medical expenditures among people diagnosed with diabetes is twice as higher than the people without diabetes. Indirect cost is more than 69 billion which includes the cost for disability, work loss, and premature death (Center for Disease Control and Prevention, 2012).
Building cross cultural relationships by one to one interaction connects each other in a culturally diverse community. Building relationship with people from different cultures including the minority population is the key in building diverse community that are powerful enough to achieve the goals. Bringing quality of health care into culturally diverse community by sturdy and caring relationships based on the trust, understanding and shared goals (Noll, 2012).
National Diabetes Education Program (NDEP) works with partners to reduce the burden of diabetes and to prevent or delay the onset of type-2 diabetes and its complications using proven approaches. National Diabetes Prevention Program partnerships with community organizations, insurers, health care organizations, employers and governmental agencies. The National Program to Eliminate Diabetes Related Disparities in vulnerable population assist community partners in planning, organizing, developing, implementing and evaluating community based interventions to decrease the incidence of diabetes. National Public Health Institution on Diabetes and Women’s Health enhances approaches to improve access and quality of care for women with gestational diabetes. Road to Health is designed for African American and Hispanics at risk for type-2 diabetes, which is a community outreach program reinforcing the prevention or delay of diabetes.
Laws on nutritional labels provide information on carbohydrate counting and helps to compare foods and to make better choices. Food labels can be essential tool for diabetic meal planning (Center for Disease Control and Prevention, 2012). Environmental and policy approaches are planned to promote opportunities, provide support, and reminds people to be more physically active. Enhanced spaces for physical activity involves an attempt to change the existing environment to create physical activities, such changes include making walking trails, promoting exercise facilities, and providing access to existing nearby facilities. Environmental modification for creating walkable communities, increases physical activity levels by development of adequate trails, sidewalks, pedestrian spaces to bike, jog, and walk. The land use policies and practices involve the efforts of planning and health care professionals to change the physical environment of urban area to support physical activities. The land use policies should support improvement of ecofriendly spaces, increased sense of community, and increased consumer choices for places to reduce stress. Transportation and travel policies will facilitates walking, bicycling and use of public transportation.
Also, increased parking cost will promote the use of public transportation (Center for Disease Control and Prevention, 2012). The global rise in the non-communicable disease presents a tremendous challenge in public and private health care sectors. With complex and variable determinants of health non-communicable disease like diabetes is estimated to increase the global burden of disease and death rates. Diabetes accounts for more than fifteen percentage of National Health care Budgets, and almost triple the health care resources. Many of the countries have improved the health care infrastructure which is fragmented, but still it remains inadequately funded and non-operational. Environmental challenges include the lack of exercise, obesity, rapid Westernization of low and middle income countries and changes in diet habits (Tjota, et al., 2011). Encouraging public awareness about healthy diet, and promoting physical activity facilitates to overcome the challenges. Another challenge is the inadequate workforce in the public health sector, lack of adequate training on the disease prevention and health care promotion.
Finally there is no enough evidence-based research materials to support the public health care for disease prevention and health care promotion. Translating Research Into Action for Diabetes (TRIAD) is a conceptual model that uses Donabedian’s paradigm to draw the relationships among various factors such as the system factors, process of care and health care outcome. The model is used for decision making in diabetes treatments, identify barriers and better care outcomes for the people with diabetes. This model is launched by Center for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) and the National Institute of Diabetes and Kidney Diseases (NIDDK). TRIAD model is a cohort study in which the system factors include structure of the health care system, disease management steps, referral care and management, payment services and incentives, cost-containment steps and use of information system.
In the process of care the model uses HbA1c testing, lipid testing, retinal examinations, micro albuminuria testing, annual foot examinations, and prescription of aspirin. The health outcome expectations include the glycemic control, blood pressure control, utilization and cost control, management of health status and symptoms, that includes cardiovascular disease, renal disease, retinopathy, and cholesterol control (Translating Disease Into Action for Diabetes Fact Sheet, 2011).
Diabetes has become an epidemic that continues to rise and become the seventh leading cause of death among the population. Federal, state, and local agencies have placed various surveillance systems and recommends to assess how diabetes affect the community and the specific targeted population. Diabetes as a public health issue is aligned with the nationally identified health objective of Healthy People 2010 and continues to address the issue with improved methods of prevention and control of the disease. The presentation recommended implementation of the campaign for diabetes based on the social, economic, and cultural factors. It also revealed the various approaches taken by policy makers, department of law, various diabetes programs, and environmental aspects involved. The presentation assessed various challenges in improving the population health. Finally the presentation summarized the TRIAD model used by the managers for decision making purposes and to anticipate the future needs.
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (2012). Diabetes Health Resource. Retrieved from http://cdc.gov/diabetes/status/us/index.htm. Chomutare, T., Tatara, N., Årsand, E., & Hartvigsen, G. (2013). Designing a diabetes mobile application with social network support. Studies In Health Technology And Informatics, 18858-64. Noll, K. E. (2012). Cultural diabetes. (Order No. 1519974, University of Denver). ProQuest Dissertations and Theses, 86. Retrieved from http://search.proquest.com/docview/1112475764?accountid=458. Tjota, M. Y., Kozak, B. M., Chang, E. M., Wu, V. L., & Close, K. L. (2011). Journal of Diabetes NEWS. Journal Of Diabetes, 3(3), 174-181. doi:10.1111/j.1753-0407.2011.00140.x Translating Disease Into Action for Diabetes Fact Sheet. (2011). Diabetes Public Health Resource. Retrieved from http://www.cdc.gov/diabetes/projects/research.htm.
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